Crypto Glossary

Learn all of the most important blockchain and cryptocurrency terms and jargon here.



Abenomics is the economic strategy implemented by Shinzo Abe of Japan and is comprised of three arrows: monetary policy, fiscal stimulus and structural reforms.

Abnormal Return

Abnormal return refers to the unusual profits from certain assets or securities over a specific time period.

Absolute Advantage

Absolute advantage is a situation in which a company can produce the same product as other companies using fewer resources.

Absolute Return

The term absolute return refers to the return on investment (whether positive or negative) obtained in a specific period of time.


Abstract is something that exists in thought as an idea.

Abstraction Scalability

Abstraction scalability is the expansion in the overall ability of a system that allows programming components to be used as building blocks in a new development environment.

Accepting Risk (Acceptance)

Accepting risk, also known as risk acceptance, is a risk management strategy employed by companies to accept risks linked to certain events instead of investing resources to tackle them.


An account is essentially a whose purpose is to track the financial activities of a specific asset/

Account Abstraction

Account abstraction is the process of making it easier for users to interact with blockchain by customizing certain elements of smart contract accounts.

Account Balance

Account balance refers to the amount in a bank/cryptocurrency account that can be accessed immediately. On the other hand, in accounting, account balance refers to the sum obtained from the difference between all debit and credit transactions posted to a company’s account.

Account Number

An account number is a string of numbers (and sometimes letters) that is used to identify a specific bank account and the account holder.


Accountability is the requirement or readiness to assume responsibility for one's actions.

Accounting Conservatism

Accounting conservatism is a principle that necessitates the recognition of future expenses and liabilities immediately in a volatile situation rather than future assets and revenues.

Accounting Method

An accounting method is a system of rules applied to determine how and when revenue and expenses are recorded in an organization.

Accounting Token

Accounting tokens are essentially tokenized credit or debit entries (IOU/UOM), just like any spreadsheet-based accounting system.

Accredited Investors

An accredited investor is a person or organization that is qualified to participate in financial opportunities that are not legally offered to regular investors.

Accretion (of a Discount)

Accretion of a discount refers to the gain that is generated from the difference between the discounted purchase price and the face value of an asset.

Accrual Accounting

Accrual accounting is a method in which revenues and expenses are recorded in the year in which they occurred instead of when the payment is actually made.


The accumulated interest, income or expenses over a period of time is known as an accrual.

Accrued Income

Accrued income is the type of income that has been earned but is yet to be received, it is in accordance with the accrual method of accounting.

Accrued Interest

Accrued interest is the amount of interest owed by or owed to a company on a specified date on a debt or a financial obligation that is yet to be received or paid.

Accrued Liabilities

Accrued liabilities are financial obligations that have not been credited from the company's bank accounts as invoices for these obligations have not been received.

Accrued Revenue

Accrued revenue rises when a business records sales without receiving payment for the goods or services sold as they do not invoice the customer at the time of the sale.

Accumulation Phase

The accumulation phase is a stage in the market cycle right after a downtrend, where the institutional investors start buying in tranches, signaling a positive uptrend soon.

Accumulation/Distribution Indicator

The accumulation/distribution indicator determines the supply and demand level of a stock/asset/cryptocurrency by multiplying the closing price of a specific period with volume.

Acid Test Ratio

An acid test ratio is a tool that gives an understanding of a company's ability to pay off its current liabilities.


An acquisition is buying out another company by purchasing a controlling stake

Acquisition Cost

Acquisition cost is generally the total cost to be paid for a company’s property, equipment or other assets after adjusting for incentives, discounts, closing costs and other necessary expenditures but before the sales taxes.

Acquisition Premium

Acquisition premium refers to the price difference between the price paid for a company and its assessed market value.

Active Management

Active management requires a manager, or a team of managers, to actively manage a portfolio.

Activist Investor

An activist investor is an individual or institution seeking to gain a controlling stake in a company to instigate changes.

Adam Back

Adam Back is a world-renowned British cryptographer, cypherpunk and crypto industry figure from the United Kingdom.

Adaptive State Sharding

Used by Elrond, Adaptive State Sharding is an approach that combines all types of sharding into one to improve communication and performance.


A place where cryptocurrency can be sent to and from, in the form of a string of letters and numbers.

Administrative Expenses

Administrative expenses are costs incurred by an organization that includes, but are not limited to, benefits and salaries for administrative staff, rent and managerial compensation.

Adoption Curve

Adoption curve indicates the pace of adoption of a new technology by people. It may also involve segregation of the target audience to understand the market's willingness.

Advance/Decline Line (A/D Line)

The A/D line is a technical indicator that plots the difference between the advancing and declining issues in the stock market on a daily basis

Aeternity Blockchain

A blockchain network that works on a hybrid consensus approach; both Proof of Work and Proof of Stake.


An affiliation is a connection between two firms where one company has a small stake in the other company. The concept also applies to the connection between two companies that are owned by the same parent company.

Affiliate Marketing

Affiliate marketing is a kind of promotion technique where a business pays a person or entity a commission for promoting their goods and services in order to increase sales.

Agency Problem

The agency problem, also called the principle-agent problem or the agency dilemma, is the inherent challenge of persuading one party (the agent) to behave in the best interests of another party (the principal) rather than their own benefit.

Agency Theory

The agency theory discusses how to set up agency relationships in a way that minimizes the likelihood of disputes and other problems arising between agents and principals.


An agent is a third party that has been given the legal right to represent a business (the "principal") and enter into contracts on that business' behalf.

Aggregate Demand

In an economy, aggregate demand is the total demand for all finished services and goods produced by that economy.

Aggressive Investment Strategy

An aggressive investment strategy is a high-risk investment strategy that aims to generate the maximum possible returns in financial markets.

AI Coins

AI coins are designed to streamline AI-related transactions and interactions, all while upholding transparency and security through blockchain technology.

Air Gap

If data cannot be accessed, then it cannot be infected or corrupted — this is the concept of an air gap.


A marketing campaign that distributes a specific cryptocurrency or token to an audience.


Airnode is an oracle node and API blockchain gateway that is readily deployed by API providers who want to engage in the API3 blockchain protocol and put their data feeds on-chain.

Alan Greenspan

Alan Greenspan was the former head of the US Federal Reserve and served as the chairman for almost two decades from 1987 to 2006.

Algo-Trading (Algorithmic Trading)

Algo-trading is an automated trading system where buy and sell orders are placed according to the rules of a computer program or algorithm.


A process or set of rules to be followed in problem-solving or calculation operations, usually by a computer.

Algorithmic Market Operations (AMOs)

Algorithmic Market Operations (AMOs) automatically control the supply of algorithmic stablecoins while improving scalability, decentralization, and transparency.

Algorithmic Stablecoin

An algorithmic stablecoin actually uses an algorithm underneath, which can issue more coins when its price increases and buy them off the market when the price falls.

All Risks Coverage

It refers to a type of insurance coverage that automatically covers any risk that the contract does not explicitly omit.

All-Time-High (ATH)

The highest point (in price, in market capitalization) that a cryptocurrency has been in history. *see All-Time-Low (ATL).

All-Time-Low (ATL)

An all-time low (ATL) refers to the lowest price a cryptocurrency has hit during its trading history.

Allocated Gold

Allocated gold refers to a form of gold ownership where the investor physically owns a specific amount of gold stored in a secure vault on their behalf.


Allocation is the allotment of equity or tokens that may be earned, bought, or reserved for a specific team, group, investor, institution, or another similar entity.

Allocation Efficiency

Allocation efficiency is allocating resources in a manner to optimize the efficiency of the organization


Allotment refers to the systematic distribution or assignment of resources in a business to various entities over time.


Alpha is a financial tool indicating an investment’s performance relative to its benchmark index in the market.

Alpha Version

Alpha version is typically a preliminary version of the software, released to test its usability and interface.


Alphanumeric phrases consist of both letters and numerals, or characters.


As Bitcoin is the first cryptocurrency that captured the world’s imagination, all other coins were subsequently termed “altcoins,” as in “alternative coins.”

Altcoin Trader

A person who trades cryptocurrencies alternative to Bitcoin.

Alternative Investments

Alternative investments are assets that have low correlation and can achieve different risk-adjusted returns than traditional equity and fixed income investments.


An amalgamation is the merging of two or more organizations that should be recognized as separate legal entities by the jurisdiction’s laws.

Amazon S3

Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3) is a scalable, high-speed, and inexpensive web-based cloud storage service to store and retrieve data anytime and anywhere.

Amended Return

An amended return is a revised version of your original tax return.


The European Union’s 5th Anti-Money Laundering Directive (AMDL5) is an update to the union’s Anti-Money Laundering (AML) framework.


A political philosophy originally conceived by American economist Murray Rothbard that has now been embraced by many members of the crypto community.

Anchoring and Adjustment

Anchoring is the psychological phenomenon of having a preconceived idea of something and adjusting your decision-making around that preconceived notion.

aNFT (Autonomous NFT)

aNFTs (autonomous NFTs) are non-fungible tokens that can be programmed to initiate their own transactions. Every aNFT is a self-contained, self-executing entity that can be designed to do any on-chain action in response to any on and off-chain condition.

Angel Investor

A person who financially backs a new business venture or startup.

Animal Spirits

Animal spirits are the driving forces behind the economy that are not purely economic in nature but also include psychological factors, such as confidence and fear.

Annual Percentage Rate (APR)

The amount of interest a borrower must pay each year is known as the annual percentage rate (APR). The annual percentage rate (APR) is determined by multiplying the periodic interest rate by the number of periods in a year that the periodic rate is used.

Annual Percentage Yield (APY)

Annual percentage yield (APY) is the rate of return gained over the course of a year on a specific investment. Compounding interest, which is computed on a regular basis and applied to the am.

Annual Report

An annual report is an essential document for any company as it provides a detailed understanding of the firm’s financial performance as well as its future prospects.

Annualized Rate of Return

‍An annualized rate of return is a way to measure and track the performance of an investment over time.


Anonymity is when something is not known or named.

Anti-dump/Anti-Dumping Policy

In the world of blockchain, the anti-dumping policy is a set of rules that protects investors from falling victim to a pump and dump scheme, in which a large number of tokens are purchased by an investor (whale) to boost the token’s value and then dumped at a much higher price, resulting in losses to investors who purchased the asset later.


A quality attached to an asset that means it performs better when exposed to volatility and shocks.


Anti-Malware is a type of application software that prevents, detects, and removes malware from computers & electronic devices.

Anti-Money Laundering (AML)

A set of international laws enacted to curtail criminal organizations or individuals laundering money through cryptocurrencies into real-world cash.

Antitrust Law

Antitrust is a collection of laws that prohibits unfair competition or monopolistic practices by businesses.


A piece of software designed to protect against malicious software and cyber attacks in general.


Antpool is one of the largest Bitcoin mining pools and aggregates the computing power of many miners to increase the chance of solving a block and receiving the block reward.


Apeing is when a cryptocurrency trader buys a token shortly after the token project launch without conducting thorough research.


API stands for Application Programming Interface. It is a set of routines, protocols, and tools for building software applications. APIs specify how software components should interact, such as what data to use and what actions should be taken.

Application Layer

The top-most layer of a seven-layered OSI model.

AR Token (Arweave)

AR is Arweave’s native token.


Arbitrage is the practice of quickly buying and selling the same asset in different markets to take advantage of price differences between the markets.

Arbitrage Pricing Theory (APT)

The arbitrage pricing theory (APT) offers a framework for evaluating market efficiency and identifying arbitrage opportunities in financial markets.


An arbitrageur is a type of investor who exploits pricing inefficiencies between two different markets.

Arm Virtual Machine (Qtum)

Qtum’s arm virtual machine allows users to execute applications in a decentralized manner.

Aroon Indicator

Aroon Indicator is used to identify the existence, changes, and corrective retracements and gauge the strength of an ongoing trend in financial markets.

Ascending Channel

Ascending channels are trend continuation patterns that have an ascending price action as their main characteristic.


The complete loss of a trader's total invested capital, specifically as a result of shorting Bitcoin.


An acronym for application-specific integrated circuit — a device designed for the sole purpose of mining cryptocurrencies.


This term usually applies to blockchains and mining algorithms, designed to give no benefit for ASICs over consumer grade hardware.

Ask Price

The minimum price that a seller is willing to accept for an asset. The ask price is also sometimes referred to as the offer price.


Assets are the resources that an organization can use to generate revenue or benefit.

Asset Class

An asset class is a classification of investments based on common traits, behaviors and laws.

Asset Financing

Asset financing emerges as a financial stratagem, allowing enterprises to claim or employ assets by obtaining capital from lenders, such as banks or other financial establishments.

Asset Swap

An asset swap is a financial transaction where an asset is swapped with another for various purposes.

Asset-Backed Tokens

Asset-backed tokens are digital claims on a physical asset and are backed by that asset.

Asset-Based Approach

The asset-based approach takes into account the company's assets for valuation.

Asset-Based Lending

In asset-based lending, lenders have a vested interest in the value of a company’s assets rather than just its creditworthiness.

Assets Under Management (AUM)

Assets under management measures the total market values of all the funds controlled by an individual or financial institution on behalf of their clients.


The practice of disguising marketing campaigns or otherwise sponsored messaging as the unprompted views of genuine community members.


Events that do not occur simultaneously or at the same rate are referred to as asynchronous.

Atomic Swap

The transfer of cryptocurrency from one party to another, without the use of an exchange or other intermediary.


AtomicDEX offers a cryptocurrency wallet and DEX in one application that is available for multiple platforms.

Attestation Ledger

An attestation ledger is an account book designed to provide evidence of individual transactions. It is generally used to “attest” that a financial transaction took place, or to prove the authenticity of transactions or products.


An auction is a public sale through a bidding process where an asset is sold to the highest bidder.


An audit is a process where developers inspect the underlying code and/or algorithm that compose systems and applications.


An auditor is a trained professional who conducts audits. They are typically employed by accounting firms or work within an organization's internal audit department.

Augmented Reality (AR)

Augmented Reality (AR) is an immersive experience that improves the value and usage of real-world items using computer-generated intuitive information sent through a variety of sensory modalities such as sound, touch, smell, and sight.


Authentication is a process that confirms a user's identity using passwords, SMS codes, fingerprints, and other forms of ownership proofs before granting access to sensitive and/or personal information.

Authority Masternode (VeChain)

An authority masternode (AM) is a network-connected server that runs the VeChainThor full node program.

Automated Market Maker (AMM) [Updated]

An automated market maker (AMM) is a system that provides liquidity to the exchange it operates in through automated trading.

Autonomous Economic Agent (AEA)

A solution (software entity) by and IOTA foundation that can take actions without external input using its own intelligence for the economic benefit of the owner.

Average Annual Growth Rate (AAGR)

It is the mean return of an individual investment, portfolio, asset or cash flow on an annual basis.

Average Annual Return (AAR)

Average Annual Return (AAR) refers to a percentage derived when reporting the historical return.

Average Daily Trading Volume (ADTV)

The average daily trading volume (ADTV) of stock or crypto is the number of shares/coins traded in one day.

Average Directional Index (ADX)

The average directional index (ADX) is a technical indicator that measures how strong a market trend is by using price moving averages and is represented by figures ranging between 1 and 100, where a larger value suggesting a stronger trend.

Average Return

The average return is the mean value of a sequence of returns generated over a specified period of time.

Average Selling Price (ASP)

An average selling price (ASP) refers to the amount at which a specific item is sold.

Back-to-Back Letters of Credit

Two letters of credit used consecutively to carry out a financial transaction through a third party are called back-to-back letters of credit.

Backflush Costing (Backflush Accounting)

An accounting method assigning costs to products after the completion of production.


A collection of pending tasks in an organization is referred to as a backlog.


An order that cannot be processed at the given time due to a lack of products available is called a backorder.


An insurance agreement that offers security to unsubscribed shares of a company or a secondary source of funds in case the primary funds fall short.


Backtesting in cryptocurrency refers to using historical data to simulate the performance of a trading strategy.

Backward Compatibility

Backward compatibility allows new technology to interact seamlessly with older versions.


Crypto slang for a large quantity of a specific cryptocurrency. Alternatively (but less frequently) used to refer to the contents of an individual's crypto portfolio.


An investor who continues to hold large amounts of a specific coin or token, regardless of its performance.


Bail-in is a relief or rescue solution offered to a heavily indebted financial institution where the company's depositors, creditors or bondholders suffer a portion of the company's burden.


Bail-out refers to a capital injection or resources given to an entity to prevent a potential downfall, including default and bankruptcy on its financial obligations.

Bait and Switch Scam

It is a sales strategy in which a customer is attracted to a product or a service at a low rate but is later encouraged to buy one at a higher rate.


Baking is the process that Tezos uses in order to append new blocks of transactions to its blockchain.


Baking is a process that is used by Tezos in order to append new blocks of transactions onto its blockchain.

Balanced Fund

Balanced Funds refer to mutual funds containing stock and bond components in a single portfolio.

Balanced Investment Strategy

A balanced investment strategy attempts to balance the return and risk of a portfolio.

Balloon Loan

A loan that is not designed to be fully paid back by the end of the term and requires a balloon payment at maturity.

Balloon Payment

A large amount of money due at the end of the term of a balloon loan is called a balloon payment.

Bandwagon Effect

The bandwagon effect is the phenomenon in which a person’s decision is influenced by the majority.


The quantity of data capacity available for transactional activity on a network is known as bandwidth.

Bank for International Settlements (BIS)

The BIS is an international financial institution that promotes global monetary stability.

Bank Run

A bank run occurs when most customers withdraw their cash from the bank out of fear of solvency and bankruptcy.

Banking as a Service (BaaS)

BaaS platforms provides a higher level of financial transparency options by letting banks open up their APIs for third parties in order to develop new services.

Banking Secrecy Act (BSA)

The Bank Secrecy Act (BSA) was implemented in the United States in 1970 to prevent criminals from concealing or laundering their illegal gains.


Bankruptcy is a state where an entity or a person cannot meet its financial obligations, such as debt repayment to creditors upon legal declaration.

Bar Chart

A bar chart is a graph used for data visualization and technical analysis in finance. It consists of vertical and horizontal lines arranged on a graph to give meaningful information.

Basis Point

Basis point is a common unit of measure that shows changes in financial interest rates and percentages.


A basket, when used in the cryptocurrency space, refers to a collection of digital currencies managed as a single asset.

Basket of Goods

A basket of goods is a measure to assess the prices of consumer goods and services.

Batch Auctions

Batch auctions are a trading mechanism in which individual orders are grouped together and executed simultaneously.

Bayes’ Theorem

Bayes’ Theorem is a statistical analysis tool used to determine the posterior probability of the occurrence of an event based on the previous data.

Beacon Chain

A blockchain that coordinates shard chains, manages staking and the registry of validators in a PoS cryptocurrency, such as Ethereum 2.0.


Someone who believes that prices in a given market will decline over an extended period. Such a person might be referred to as “bearish.”

Bear Call Spread

A vertical spread with two calls of different rates but at the same expiration date is known as a bear call spread.

Bear Hug

A hostile takeover strategy, where a company is offered to be bought at a higher than target rate.

Bear Market

When prices of assets in a market fall by 20% or more from recent highs, it is called a bear market. As a result, investor confidence is low, and the economy and market turn pessimistic.

Bear Trap

The attempted manipulation of a specific cryptocurrency’s price, based on the coordinated activity of a group of traders.


A bearwhale is a person who has a high number of cryptocurrencies and uses their massive account to drive the price down and profit out of it. 

Behavioral Finance

Behavioral finance is a branch of finance that combines psychology and economics to explain how human emotions and cognitive biases influence financial decisions.


Benchmarking is a method of comparing the performance of your asset or investment portfolio to that of similar assets to see whether there is a gap that can be bridged by increasing performance indicators.

Benchmark Index

A benchmark index is a popular index security that is used as a gauge or benchmark, against which the progress of the broader market may be tracked.

Benefit-Cost Ratio

The benefit-cost ratio (BCR) is a profitability indicator used in cost-benefit analysis to determine the viability of cash flows generated from an asset or project.

BEP-2 (Binance Chain Tokenization Standard)

A technical standard for tokens on Binance Chain.


BEP-20 is a BNB Chain token standard created with the intention of extending ERC-20.


BEP-721 is a Binance Smart Chain (BSC) token standard that enables the generation of non-fungible tokens (NFTs). It is considered to be an extension of ERC-721 that is one of the most popular NFT standards.

BEP-95 (Bruno Hard Fork Upgrade)

Binance Evolution Protocol (BEP-95) is a Bruno hard fork upgrade that aims to speed up the BNB token burning process.

Beta (Release)

A software pre-release stage where its access is offered to a set number of users & third-party software testers for testing it under real-world settings.

Bid Price

The cost that someone is willing to pay for a security, asset, commodity, service, or contract is referred to as a bid price.

Bid-Ask Spread

Bid-ask spread is the difference between the highest price which a buyer is willing to pay for an asset as well as the lowest price that a seller is willing to accept.

Big Tech

The four or five biggest technological corporations, particularly Facebook, Apple, Google, and Amazon, are referred to as "Big Tech" as they enjoy the biggest shares in their respective industries.

Binance Chain Explorer

Binance Chain Explorer is a web-based platform that provides access to information and data related to the BNB Chain.

Binance Labs

Binance Labs is a project to nurture, invest in, and develop blockchain and cryptocurrency businesses, initiatives, and communities, as well as a social impact fund.

Binance Launchpad

Binance Launchpad offers crypto-startups a platform to raise capital and market their projects to millions of crypto investors in the Binance ecosystem.

Binary Code

Binary code is a two-symbol system that is based on numbers, "0" and "1," to represent text, computer processor commands, or any other type of data.


A bit is a basic unit of information in computing.

Bitcoin 3.0

Bitcoin 3.0 represents the next evolutionary phase of Bitcoin mining, characterized by its potential to become a responsible partner in both the energy and financial ecosystems.

Bitcoin ATM (BTM)

An automated teller machine (ATM or cashpoint) that allows the user to buy and sell Bitcoin.

Bitcoin DApps

Decentralized applications (DApps) running on Bitcoin-powered blockchains while benefiting from the core features of the Bitcoin network are known as Bitcoin DApps.

Bitcoin Dominance (BTCD)

Bitcoin Dominance is a metric that determines how much share of the overall crypto market share is owned by Bitcoin.

Bitcoin ETF

A Bitcoin ETF, or exchange-traded fund, is a type of investment fund that tracks the price of Bitcoin and allows investors to buy and sell shares of the fund on an exchange.

Bitcoin Halving

Bitcoin halving is an event in which the total rewards per confirmed block halves.

Bitcoin Improvement Proposal (BIP)

The standard format for documents proposing changes to Bitcoin.

Bitcoin Misery Index (BMI)

The Bitcoin Misery Index (BMI) is used by investors as an investment tool that ranges from 0 to 100.

Bitcoin NFTs

Non-fungible tokens (NFTs) minted on Bitcoin-powered blockchains and secured by the Bitcoin network are known as Bitcoin NFTs.

Bitcoin Pizza

Bitcoin Pizza refers to the infamous transaction where a guy, named Laszlo Hanyecz, paid 10,000 Bitcoins for two pizzas making it the first business transaction of Bitcoin in the real world.

Bitcoin Virtual Machine (BitVM)

BitVM, or Bitcoin Virtual Machine, is a proposed system described in a whitepaper by Robin Linus that allows complex computations and smart contracts to be executed on the Bitcoin network.


A person who is bullish on Bitcoin.


Bitcointalk is the most popular online forum dedicated to Bitcoin, cryptocurrency and blockchain technology.


A business license permitting regulated virtual currency activities, issued by the New York State Department of Financial Services.


BitPay is a Bitcoin payment service provider.


A commonly used unit, or subdivision, of a single Bitcoin.


Configuration data loaded onto an FPGA is called Bitstream.

Black Hat Hacker

Black hat hackers usually use malware to penetrate into computerized networks and systems to steal data.

Black Swan Event

A black swan event, also known as black swan occurrences, is a metaphor for an unexpected event that has a significant impact.

Black-Scholes Model

In simple terms, it is a mathematical formula that gives the fair price of stock options, allowing investors to calculate whether they are overvalued or undervalued.


Used in Decred, Blake-256 is a hash algorithm designed by Jean-Philippe Aumasson, Luca Henzen, Willi Meier, and Raphael C.-W. Phan.


A file containing information on transactions completed during a given time period. Blocks are the constituent parts of a blockchain.

Block Explorer

An application enabling a user to view details of blocks on a given blockchain. Also known as a blockchain browser.

Block Header

A block header is a unique identifier for a block on a blockchain that is hashed on a continuous basis to supply proof-of-work for mining incentives.

Block Height

A value describing the number of blocks preceding a given block in the blockchain.

Block Lattice (Nano)

The block lattice is a data structure that replaces the traditional blockchain used by most cryptocurrencies with a network of individual blockchains, one for each user.

Block Producer

A block producer (BP) is a person or group whose hardware is chosen to verify a block's transactions and begin the next block on most Proof-of-Stake (PoS) blockchains.

Block Reward

The coins awarded to a miner or group of miners for solving the cryptographic problem required to create a new block on a given blockchain.

Block Size

In blockchain technology, block size refers to the amount of data about transactions a single block in the chain can carry.

Block Time

Block time refers to the approximate time it takes for a blockchain-based system to produce a new block.

Block Trade

A block trade is a large-scale purchase or sale of securities that occur outside of an open market. It uses blockhouse as a financial intermediary to aid investors with risk management.


A distributed ledger system. A sequence of blocks, or units of digital information, stored consecutively in a public database. The basis for cryptocurrencies.

Blockchain 1.0

Blockchain 1.0 is the first generation of blockchain technology, which focuses on cryptocurrency and decentralization.

Blockchain 2.0

Blockchain 2.0 is an extension to blockchain 1.0 as it introduced the concept of decentralization of business and markets through smart contracts and improved security and transparency.

Blockchain 3.0

Blockchain 3.0 is the final developmental stage of blockchain technology, which predicts global, institutional and enterprise adoption.

Blockchain Explorer

A blockchain explorer is simply a search engine allowing users to browse through blockchain records.

Blockchain Mutual Credit

Blockchain mutual credit is a framework within which stable cryptocurrencies can be derived from multilateral exchange networks.

Blockchain Transmission Protocol (BTP)

Blockchain Transmission Protocol (BTP) enables isolated blockchains to operate as a fully decentralized settlement layer by securely anchoring transactions using a protocol that is universal.

Blockchain Tribalism

Blockchain tribalism refers to people in the blockchain or crypto community becoming ideologically aligned with a specific blockchain or crypto.

Blockchain Trilemma

The blockchain trilemma is the set of three issues that plague blockchains: decentralization, security and scalability.

Blockchain-As-a-Service (BaaS)

BaaS offers the capabilities of blockchain technology to businesses but without the necessity of establishing and maintaining a dedicated blockchain framework.

Blockchain-Enabled Smart Locks

Blockchain-enabled smart locks solve many security issues and can be locked or unlocked based on the state of a variable that is embedded in a smart contract.


Blockweave is a data storage protocol that builds upon blockchain architecture. It utilizes a unique interconnected structure linking each block to the previous block and a random older block.

Bluesky Crypto Protocol

The Bluesky crypto protocol is a decentralized social network protocol, organized by Twitter, that allows several social networks to interact with other social networks, thanks to an open standard.

Bollinger Band

A tool developed by Bollinger to help in the recognition of systemic pattern recognition in prices; it is a band that is plotted two standard deviations away from the simple moving average, or exponential moving average in some cases.

Bonding Curve

A bonding curve is a mathematical curve that defines the relationship between the price and the supply of a given asset.


Automated software that can carry out tasks such as cryptocurrency trades.


A bottleneck refers to a point where capacity becomes restricted, creating congestion and slowing the overall performance.


A cryptocurrency bounty is a reward users receive for performing tasks assigned by a given blockchain or project.

Brave Browser

Brave Browser


Taking its cue from Ethereum's ERC-20, the Bitcoin blockchain's BRC-20 is an experimental token standard. Ordinals protocol supports the generation and transfer of fungible tokens.


In the world of cryptocurrencies, breaking the forward compatibility of cryptoassets is seen in hard forks of a cryptocurrency.

Brian Armstrong

Brian Armstrong is the founder of Coinbase, one of the largest cryptocurrency exchanges in the United States.


A blockchain bridge allows the seamless transfer of data or tokens between two different blockchain projects.

Browser Extension

A browser extension is a plugin for an internet browser that adds additional features.

Brute Force Attack (BFA)

An attempt to crack a password or key through automated trial and error.


When an asset is traded at a price exceeding that asset's intrinsic value.

Bug Bounty

A reward offered for the identification of vulnerabilities in software.

Bug Exploit

A bug exploit is an attack that take advantage of a system's vulnerabilities.


A person that is optimistic and confident that market prices will increase, this person is also known to be "bullish" about the market or price.

Bull Market

A bull market in crypto and stock markets refers to a time during which the prices of assets grow dramatically. These markets act as a source of motivation for both investors and purchasers. This is not a permanent state, although it can linger for months or even years.

Bull Run

A bull run (also known as a bull trend) is a period of time in the financial market during which the values of certain assets are constantly rising.

Bull Trap

A bull trap occurs when a steadily declining asset appears to reverse and go upward, but soon resumes its downward trend.


Cryptocurrency tokens or coins are considered “burned” when they have been purposely and permanently removed from circulation.

Buy The (F*******) Dip (BTD/BTFD)

An enthusiastic exclamation by supporters of a cryptocurrency to buy while prices are at a low point.

Buy Wall

A buy wall is a disproportionately large buy limit order placed on a cryptocurrency exchange.

Byron Phase

Byron Phase is the first phase of Cardano that was released in September 2017.

Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT)

Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT) is the property of a computer system that allows it to reach consensus regardless of the failure of some of its components.

Byzantine Generals’ Problem

A situation where communication that requires consensus on a single strategy from all members within a group or party cannot be trusted or verified.

Byzantium Fork

The Byzantium hard fork was geared towards making Ethereum's smart contracts suitable for usage in the commercial space and to increase the speed of the transactions with an enhancement in the security on its blockchain


C++ is an extension of the C programming language that allows cross-platform developments and capabilities.

Call Options

Call options are financial contracts that give an option buyer the right, but not the obligation, to purchase a stock, bond, commodity or other asset at a specific price.


A candlestick chart is a graphing technique used to show changes in price over time. Each candle provides 4 points of information opening price, closing price, high, and low. Also known as “candles” for short.


Capital is most commonly defined as the large sum of money you would use to invest.

Capital Efficiencies

Capital efficiency is the ratio that compares the spending of a company on their growing revenue and how much they are receiving in return in the way of profits.

Capital Funds

Capital funding is the money provided in the form of debt or equity to operate a company.


Capitulation is the process of selling assets or cryptocurrencies at a significant loss because you have lost hope or belief that it will ever increase in price.

Casascius Coin

A physical unit of Bitcoin that comes in the form of brass, silver or gold-plated coins.

Cascading Liquidations

Cascading liquidation refers to an event where liquidations pile on top of each other, resulting in a sudden price change.


Cash is the most liquid form of money: physical coins and banknotes in the most narrow sense of the term.


CashTokens are a new set of opcodes that extend the capabilities of Bitcoin Cash to support new financial primitives in the form of fungible and non-fungible tokens.

Casper (Ethereum)

Casper is a project designed to implement PoS into the Ethereum network.

Cathie Wood

Cathie Wood is a top stock investor and the founder of ARK Invest, a $60 billion (assets) firm that invests in cutting-edge technologies, including self-driving vehicles and genomics.


CeDeFi, or centralized decentralized finance, combines traditional centralized financial services with decentralized applications, merging conventional regulatory policies with modern financial products and infrastructure.


Censorship is the act of altering, suppressing, or prohibiting speech or writing that is considered detrimental to the general public.

Censorship Resistance

Censorship resistance refers to the idea that no party can prevent anyone from participating in a given platform or network.

Central Bank

In contemporary economies, the central bank is responsible for the formulation and transmission of monetary policy, as well as for the regulation of member banks.

Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC)

CBDCs are digital currencies issued by a central bank whose status as legal tender depends on government regulation or law.

Central Ledger

A central ledger is a physical book or a computer file used to record transactions in a centralized manner.

Central Processing Unit (CPU)

A central processing unit (CPU) is the part of a computer that is in charge of interpreting and executing programs and coordinating the work of all other components.


A centralized organizational structure is one in which a single node or a small number of them are in control of an entire network.

Centralized Exchange (CEX)

Centralized exchanges (CEXs) are a type of cryptocurrency exchange that is operated by a company that owns it in a centralized manner.

Centre (Consortium)

A member-based consortium by Coinbase and Circle to manage USD Coin (USDC).

Certificate of Deposit (CD)

A certificate of deposit (CD) is a financial product allowing customers to earn an interest rate premium after making a deposit.

Chain Reorganization

Chain reorganization is a process in blockchain technology that allows node operators to replace blocks and adopt new ones, in order to create new, longer chains of data.

Chain Split

Chain splits are another term used to describe cryptocurrency forks — the separation of a single original coin into several independently managed projects.


Change — a concept relevant to cryptocurrencies that use the UTXO model — is the number of coins sent back to a user after they use their unspent outputs to initiate a transaction.

Change Address

In cryptocurrencies, a change address is where the change from a transaction is temporarily stored before it is returned to the sender wallet.

Changpeng Zhao (CZ)

Changpeng Zhao (CZ) is the founder of crypto exchange Binance.


A chargeback is the return of money to the payer of a certain transaction, most commonly one that was made with a credit or debit card.

Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME)

The Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME) is one of the largest exchanges dealing in the trading of futures and options in the United States.

Chunk (NEAR)

Chunk is a fraction of each block produced as a result of sharding in the NEAR protocol.


A cipher is any algorithm that can be used to encrypt and decrypt information.


Ciphertext is a result of encryption that has been performed on plaintext through the usage of an algorithm


Circle is the Fintech firm behind USDC.

Circulating Supply

The best approximation of the number of coins that are circulating in the market and in the general public’s hands.


A client is software that can access and process blockchain transactions on a local computer. A common application of this is a cryptocurrency software wallet.


Refers to the closing price; similar to the same term used in stock trading.


Cloud servers are typically located throughout different data centers all over the world.

Cloud Mining

Cryptocurrency mining with remote processing power rented from companies.


A person or entity that has partial control and access over a cryptocurrency wallet.


The action of coding is to write programming statements for a program.

Code Repository

A code repository is a digital library where developers store and collaborate on their codes with ease, like a code-specific Google Drive or Dropbox.


A coin can refer to a cryptocurrency that can operate independently or to a single unit of such cryptocurrency.

Coin Mixer

Coin mixers allow users to mix up transactions between different cryptocurrency addresses, so they become untraceable and cannot be followed back to the initial sender or receiver of the assets.

Coin-Margined Trading

Coin-margined trading is a form of trading where cryptocurrencies or any other form of digital asset serves as the base for all transaction and settlement purposes.


In mineable cryptocurrencies, a coinbase is the number of coins that are generated from scratch and awarded to miners for mining every new block.

Coinbase Transaction

The first transaction in a new block is a coinbase transaction in which the miner receives Bitcoins and mining fees.

Cold Storage

Offline storage of cryptocurrencies, typically involving hardware non-custodial wallets, USBs, offline computers, or paper wallets.

Cold Wallet

A cryptocurrency wallet that is in cold storage, i.e. not connected to the internet.

Collaborative Venture Building (CVB)

Collaborative venture building (CVB) is a process where multiple individuals or organizations come together to create a new company or collaborate on a product.


Collateral is any asset that a lender accepts as a form of security to ensure that the borrower repays a loan.

Collateral Cap

Collateral cap is a security feature designed to diversify protocol-wide lending risk away from any one asset.

Collateral Factor

Collateral Factor is the maximum amount a user can borrow, represented in percentages, based on the total amount of assets supplied.

Collateral Margin

The collateral margin is the percentage of the total value of the investment that the investor must contribute in their own funds, while the remaining portion is financed by the broker.

Collateral Tokens

In cryptocurrency, collateral tokens are used as a risk mitigation asset when borrowing other types of crypto tokens.


Collateralization is the process of using one asset as insurance for securing a loan in a different asset.

Collateralized Debt Obligation

A collateralized debt obligation (CDO) represents a mixture of loans and assets that are offered to big investment firms with a lot of capital.

Collateralized Debt Position (CDP)

A collateralized debt position is held by locking collateral in smart contracts to generate stablecoins.

Collateralized Mortgage Obligation (CMO)

A collateralized mortgage obligation (CMO) is essentially a bundle of numerous mortgages combined in a package and sold to investors.

Collateralized Stablecoin

A “collateralized stablecoin” is a stablecoin that is entirely or almost entirely backed by collateral held in a reserve.


Commingling of funds is a method of combining all funds from different investors into a single investment in order to maximize the benefits.

Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC)

The Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) is an independent federal regulatory agency responsible for regulation the U.S. derivatives market.

Community Takeover (CTO)

Community Takeover (CTO) in crypto refers to a situation where the original creators or developers of a crypto project abandon or exit the project, but the community of users and token holders steps in to take control of its development and future direction.

COMP Token

The native asset of the Compound protocol.

Composability (DeFi)

In DeFi, composability allows developers to combine different components of blockchain to create new applications and services.

Composable DeFi

Composable DeFi refers to the interoperability between different DeFi protocols. It enables a multitude of DeFi applications to work along and create a wide range of new use cases and financial products.

Composable Token

A composable token is an ERC-998 token, a standard extension to any non-fungible token, adding the ability for non-fungible tokens to own other non-fungible (ERC-721) and fungible (ERC-20) tokens.

Concentrated Liquidity

Concentrated liquidity greatly improves the capital efficiency for LPs and opens up the door to a whole number of liquidity provision strategies in the process.


In cryptocurrency, a confirmation is a measure of how many blocks have actually passed since a transaction was added to a blockchain.


A cryptocurrency transaction is considered confirmed when it is included in a block on the blockchain. Each new block after the first one is an additional confirmation for that transaction.


Consensus is achieved when all participants of the network agree on the order and content of the blocks in the blockchain.

Consensus Layer

The consensus layer is the backbone of any blockchain network, performing the vital role of facilitating agreement among nodes on the true state of the blockchain.

Consensus Mechanism

A consensus mechanism is an underlying technology behind the main functionalities of all blockchain technology, which makes them an essential operating feature of all cryptocurrencies.


ConsenSys is a blockchain technology company that offers developer tools alongside enterprise solutions.


Consolidation in trading is when a crypto asset trades between two levels, and the market shows indecisiveness about the next move.

Consortium Blockchain

A privately owned and operated blockchain where a consortium shares information not readily available to the public, while relying on the immutable and transparent properties of the blockchain.

Consumer Price Index (CPI)

A Consumer Price Index (or CPI) is a type of index where the prices of a basket of goods and services are tracked to gain insights into market segments


In traditional finance, a contract is a binding agreement between two parties. In cryptocurrencies, smart contracts execute functions on the blockchain.

Contract Account

A contract account is an account that has a crypto balance and associated code.

Contract for Difference (CFD)

A contract for difference (CFD) outlines a buyer’s obligation to pay any price difference that might occur due to the shifting valuation of an asset.


In blockchain technology, a coordinator is a specialized client that allows nodes to verify the validity of their copy of the ledger against specific transactions.

Core Wallet

A core crypto wallet is able to contain the entire blockchain, rather than just a piece of a blockchain.

Corporate Treasury

A corporate treasury is formed to manage and control the liquidity, risk, funds, capital reserves, and other resources of a company to align with its short and long-term strategies.


A correction is a pullback of an asset’s price of at least 10% to adjust for over-valuation.

Counter-Terrorism Financing

Counter-terrorism financing refers to efforts to disrupt and cut off the money supply used to fund terrorist organizations and activities.

CPU Miner

Since mining requires computing power, the process of generating or mining cryptocurrency using a central processing unit (CPU) is called CPU mining (or central processing unit mining).

Craig Wright

Craig Wright is an Australian computer scientist associated with Bitcoin SV.

Credit Rating

Credit rating is a measure that allows banks and lending institutions to predict how capable you are of repaying your debt.

Credit Risk

Crest risk is the number representing the possibility that a bank or lending institution will lose money because a borrower cannot repay their loan.

Cross Margin

Cross Margin, also known as "Spread Margin" is a margin method that utilizes the full amount of funds in the available balance to avoid liquidations. Any realized profit & loss statement (P&L) from other positions can aid in adding margin on a losing position.

Cross-Border Trading

Cross-border trading in financial markets and trade finance represents the opportunity to trade globally using a local currency.


Cross-chain is a technology that enhances the interconnection between blockchain networks by allowing the exchange of information and value.

Cross-Chain Communication

Cross-chain communication between blockchains allows different protocols to verify data and transactions without the intervention of a centralized third-party service.

Cross-chain Contract Calls

Cross-chain contract calls allow information, cryptocurrencies or NFTs, which would otherwise be constrained to their own network, to move freely between blockchains via smart contracts.


Crowdfunding enables fundraisers to collect money from a large number of people through a variety of different platforms.


The practice of new projects to raise funds through DOT or KSM tokens for slots on Kusama or Polkadot network.

Crypto Debit Card

A crypto debit card is a type of debit card that allows its holder to pay for goods and services using cryptocurrencies.

Crypto Invoicing

Crypto invoicing is the process of creating invoices for goods and services that need to be paid in cryptocurrencies.

Crypto Loan

A crypto loan is a type of secured loan, similar to an auto or student loan, in which you commit to an asset as collateral in order to secure financing.

Crypto Winter

Crypto winter is a period in the crypto market when prices of major coins fall dramatically from all-time highs.


A cryptoasset is any digital asset that uses cryptographic technologies to maintain its operation as a currency or decentralized application.


Cryptocurrencies are digital currencies that use cryptographic technologies to secure their operation.

Cryptocurrency Money Laundering

Cryptocurrency money laundering is a method criminals use to legitimize and enshroud funds by changing fiat to digital currency and then routing it through many pathways. It is an attempt to lose any authorities who may be tracing the money.

Cryptocurrency Pairs

Exchanges utilize cryptocurrency pairs in order to facilitate the trade between different tokens.

Cryptographic Hash Function

Cryptographic hash functions produce a fixed-size hash value from a variable-size transaction input.


A field of study and practice to secure information, preventing third parties from reading information to which they are not privy.


The use of another party’s computer to mine cryptocurrency without their consent.


Cryptology is the scientific study of cryptography as well as cryptanalysis.


A collection of Ethereum-based non-fungible tokens.


Currency is a medium of exchange that defines value.

Currency Crisis

A currency crisis is termed as a financial emergency in which a country's fiat currency loses value, and investors become cautious of retaining/investing in that country's assets.

Curve AMO

Curve is a software that uses multiple cryptocurrencies to operate an automated market maker (AMM) service focused on stablecoins (cryptocurrencies programmed to mimic other assets).


Custodial cryptocurrency businesses are the ones that are in possession of their customers’ funds for the duration of the use of their services.


A custodian is responsible for safely holding assets for an institution or individual for a variety of purposes.


Custody is a financial institution's legal capacity to keep and preserve financial assets for its clients to avoid asset theft or loss.


The cypherpunk movement promotes the use of cryptography and other privacy-focused technologies to advance social and political progress.

Daedalus Wallet

Daedalus Wallet is a multi-platform, open-source, hierarchical-deterministic wallet that lets you generate an endless number of keys from a single seed.

DAO Summoning

DAO summoning is the act of creating or forming a DAO. The term is typically used in the context of forming a new Moloch DAO, though it can also refer to the formation of any new DAO.

Dark Web

A portion of the internet existing on darknets not indexed by search engines, that can only be accessed with specific software, configurations or authorizations.


RenVM is driven by Darknodes, a decentralized network of computers. In exchange for compensation, they offer their computing power and storage space to everyone with certain conditions.

Data Privacy

Data privacy refers to the area of data protection and security that is responsible for the handling of sensitive data.

Data Scraping

Data scraping or web scraping is the process of extracting information from a website into a spreadsheet or a local file on your computer or database.

Data Validation

Data validation is the process of clarifying the accuracy, integrity and quality of a set of data before it is used.

Date of Launch

A term used for when ICOs will put up their tokens for sale.

Day Trading

Day trading is the practice of frequently buying and selling assets in order to make a profit on intraday changes in their price.

Dead Cat Bounce

A temporary recovery in prices after a prolonged decrease.

Dead Coin

A cryptocurrency that is no longer in existence.

Death Cross

A death cross is a bearish technical trading indicator that occurs when the 50-day moving average falls below the 200-day moving average, indicating a big sell-off.

Decentralization Maximalism

Decentralization maximalism refers to the belief that decentralization is the best approach and lifestyle to such a degree that any form of regulation does not need to exist.

Decentralization Ratio

The Decentralization Ratio (DR) is the ratio of collateral value that is decentralized over the total stablecoin supply backed for those assets.


Decentralization refers to the property of a system in which nodes or actors work in concert in a distributed fashion to achieve a common goal.

Decentralized API (dAPI)

API services that are intrinsically interoperable with blockchain technology are known as decentralized application programming interfaces (dAPIs). This is an invention of the API3 protocol.

Decentralized Applications (DApps)

A type of application that runs on a decentralized network, avoiding a single point of failure.

Decentralized Autonomous Initial Coin Offerings (DAICO)

A method for decentralized funding of projects that introduces a form of governance in the ICO process, allowing backers to vote for the return of their funds if certain conditions are met.

Decentralized Autonomous Organizations (DAO)

A decentralized autonomous organization (DAO) is founded upon and governed by a set of computer-defined rules and blockchain-based smart contracts.

Decentralized Currency

Decentralized currency refers to bank-free methods of transferring wealth or ownership of any other commodity without needing a third party.

Decentralized Database

A decentralized database is a modern-day storage solution that combines decentralized technologies with cutting-edge computing to randomly store data and files across multiple nodes, delivering high security and unmatched availability while being completely censorship-resistant.

Decentralized Exchange (DEX)

A peer-to-peer exchange allowing users to trade cryptocurrency without the need for an intermediary.

Decentralized Governance

Decentralized governance refers to the procedures through which a platform's disintermediated, equitable management is carried out for blockchain networks and dApps.

Decentralized GPU

Decentralized GPU infrastructure refers to a distributed network of graphical processing units (GPUs) that offers on-demand access to GPU computing power.

Decentralized Identifier (DID)

A decentralized identifier, or DID, refers to an ID that can be issued by an autonomous, independent, and decentralized platform that acts as a proof of ownership of digital identity.

Decentralized Marketplace

A decentralized marketplace, built on blockchain technology, allows traders or investors to trade with each other while eliminating middlemen. They are available globally and require no intermediaries to make trades possible. 

Decentralized Network

A decentralized network is a collection of interconnected but distinct elements that interact with one another without the need for a centralized power or server.

Decentralized Order Book

A decentralized order book is a trading mechanism where buy and sell orders are matched through a distributed network of nodes, rather than being centralized in a single location or controlled by a single entity.

Decentralized Payment Network

A decentralized payment network refers to a system where users, customers and vendors can exchange money without having to trust any third party to keep the network secure and operational.

Decentralized Social Media

Decentralized social media is a social media platform that is based on blockchain.

Decentralized Stablecoin

Decentralized stablecoins are fully transparent, non-custodial with no or partial third-party control.


The process of transforming encrypted data back into a format that is readable by a user or machine.

Deep Web

The "deep web" is the part of the internet that is hidden from regular search engines.


A movement encouraging alternatives to traditional, centralized forms of financial services.

DeFi Aggregator

A DeFi aggregator brings together trades across various DeFi platforms into one place.

DeFi Degens

DeFi degenerates. A subculture associated with a disreputable corner of decentralized finance known for pump and dump schemes.


A decline in the general level of prices for goods and services in an economy.

Delayed Proof of Work (dPoW)

Delayed Proof of Work (dPoW) is a second-layer consensus security mechanism, designed to protect blockchains from 51% attacks threatening the integrity of the network.

Delegated Proof-of-Stake (dPOS)

An alternative to the Proof-of-Stake and Proof-of-Work consensus algorithms.


The process of removing an asset/stock/cryptocurrency from a trading exchange is called delisting.


Demurrage is a fee charged for using an asset beyond a certain time period.

Dencun Upgrade

Dencun is essentially the fusion of two separate upgrades - 'Deneb' and ‘Cancun’ together targeting improvements across Ethereum's consensus and execution layers.

Denial-of-Service (DoS) Attack

A denial-of-service attack aims to temporarily make a computer or network service unavailable to its intended users.


Decentralized Physical Infrastructure Network, or DePIN is an innovative approach that combines the power of blockchain with real-world physical infrastructure to create decentralized, efficient, and community-driven networks.

Depth Chart

A graph that plots the requests to buy (bids) and the requests to sell (asks) on a chart, based on limit orders. The chart shows the point at which the market is most likely to accept a transaction.


A financial instrument deriving its value from the value of an underlying asset.

Derivatives Market

A public market for derivatives, instruments such as futures contracts or options, which are derived from other forms of cryptocurrency assets.

Desktop Wallet

A desktop wallet is a type of software wallet that is usually non-custodial.

Deterministic Wallet

A type of cryptocurrency wallet in which keys and addresses are created from a single seed.

Dex Aggregator

DEX aggregators are a relatively new type of blockchain-based service that allow cryptocurrency traders to benefit from a large variety of financial tools in a single interface, often providing better liquidity and prices on different crypto pairs.

Dharma Protocol

An open-source stack for building debt markets on Ethereum.

Diamond Hands

Diamond Hands is a popular term on social media platforms. It refers to people who hold their coins even if their portfolio drops in value by more than 20%.


A measure of how hard it is to validate a new block on a blockchain.


Digital technologies are these electronic tools that have the ability to generate, store or even process data.

Digital Art

Digital art is art and media that is made by using digital technology.

Digital Asset

A digital asset refers to the digital representation of something of value.

Digital Asset Custodian

A digital asset custodian is responsible to look after digital assets on behalf of an investor or client.

Digital Asset Ecosystem

Digital asset ecosystem is a term that defines everything involved in the crypto space. From NFTs to futures, this terms sums up all the facilities offered and elements associated with the crypto universe.

Digital Barter Economy

Eliminating the inherent weaknesses of the traditional barter economy, a digital barter economy makes it easier to trade both physical and virtual items anywhere in the world.

Digital Commodity

A commodity that exists digitally, as opposed to in “meatspace.”

Digital Currency

A currency that exists only in digital form, as opposed to traditional physical currencies.

Digital Dollar

The term "digital dollar" refers to a possible digital currency issued by the US central bank (CBDC).

Digital Identity

Information used by a person or entity to identify themselves to a computer or network.

Digital Signature

A method for proving the authenticity of a digital communication.

Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA)

Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA) is a signature algorithm, not an encryption algorithm, and uses public-key cryptography to generate digital signatures.


No, not that. The red or green “candles,” or vertical lines, on graphs showing cryptocurrency market data.


A dip is when markets experience a short or protracted downturn.

Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG)

A way of structuring data, often used for data modelling, and increasingly as a consensus tool in cryptocurrencies.


Discord is a web-based communication tool or application primarily built to enable communication between gamers.

Distributed Consensus

Collective agreement reached among nodes in a network.

Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) Attack

An attempt by a bad actor to disrupt the operation of an application, server or network by flooding it with traffic.

Distributed Ledger

Distributed ledgers are ledgers in which data is stored across a network of decentralized nodes. A distributed ledger does not necessarily involve a cryptocurrency and may be permissioned and private.

Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT)

A database that is shared by multiple participants, in multiple places. The basis for blockchains.

Distributed Network

A network in which the data and applications are dependent on multiple sources, as opposed to one location.

Distributed Validator Technology (DVT)

DVT operates as a security system for staking validators. It spreads key management and signs tasks across multiple parties.

Distribution Phase

The distribution phase is the opposite of the accumulation phase. In this phase, the market moves sideways and is range-bound after experiencing an extended uptrend.


Diversification is a risk-management strategy that mixes a wide variety of investments within a portfolio.

Diversified Proof of Stake

Diversified Proof of Stake is a variation of the popular PoS consensus mechanism that allows multiple assets to be staked on a single blockchain.


Documentation is a part of token economies that stores all the details of an asset on the blockchain.


Someone with a moderate holding of cryptocurrency.


A measure of Bitcoin's value in the context of the larger cryptocurrency market.

Dorian Nakamoto

Dorian Nakamoto is a Japanese-American physicist who some believe to be Satoshi Nakamoto.


DotSama is a new piece of crypto slang, used to describe the Kusama and Polkadot ecosystems in just one word.

Double Spend Attack

A double-spend attack is a practice in the world of digital currencies where a user gains the ability to spend the same cryptocurrency more than once.

Double Spending

The potential for a digital currency to be spent twice.

dPoSec (Distributed Proof of Security)

dPoSec (Distributed Proof of Security) is a consensus mechanism designed to ensure that the blockchain network continues to operate even if a third of the nodes are compromised. It addresses the key challenges faced by the existing distributed network of nodes and validators.


The maximum reduction in value from the peak value for an investment or fund that has occurred over a period of time.


DRC-20 is a token standard on the Dogecoin network that allows developers and users to create fungible assets within Dogecoin's ecosystem. It is similar to ERC-20 on Ethereum.


Drivechain is a Bitcoin improvement proposal that aims to scale Bitcoin and add new features using sidechains.

Dual Governance

Dual governance refers to a two-pronged system of decision-making in a decentralized autonomous organization (DAO), where two distinct parties are involved in running the organization rather than one larger body.

Dual-Token Economy/Model (Two-Token Economy)

In the world of blockchain, a dual-token economy or model means a project with two tokens, one of which is used for utility inside the network and the other one as security to raise funds for the crypto project.


A sudden sell-off of digital assets.


A collective market sell-off that occurs when large quantities of a particular cryptocurrency are sold in a short period of time.

Dust Transactions

Miniscule amounts of Bitcoin in a wallet — with a value that would be outweighed by the cost of a transaction fee.

Dusting Attack

An attack that aims to uncover the identity of a wallet’s owner, information that can subsequently be used in phishing scams.

DYCO (Dynamic Coin Offering)

DYCO (dynamic coin offering) is a new crowdfunding model developed by DAO Maker that employs utility tokens that are backed by USD.


The acronym of Do Your Own Research — encouraging investors to complete due diligence into a project before investing.


An electronic signature, or e-signature, is any electronic mark (sign, sound, symbol, etc.) used in place of a physical signature in signing a document or contract.

Economic Utility

Economic utility is a term in economics that refers to the total satisfaction that a person can derive from consuming a good or service.

Edge Nodes

In computer science, an edge node is a computer that serves as an end-user gateway to form a connection with other nodes.

Effective Proof-of-Stake

Effective Proof-of-Stake is Harmony’s version of the Proof-of-Stake consensus mechanism that aims for both security and decentralization.


EIP-1559 is an upgrade to the Ethereum network that simplified the fee market mechanism.

Electrum Wallet

A Bitcoin wallet for Windows, macOS and Linux with a simple interface.


Short for “explain like I’m five” — a plea for simplicity when crypto concepts are being explained.

Elliott Waves

The Elliott Wave Theory is an essential tool for many stock and crypto market traders.

EMA (Exponential Moving Average)

Exponential moving average (EMA) is a technical indicator that highlights the recent price changes and data points of an asset/stock/cryptocurrency while keeping the older chart observations intact.

Email Spoofing

Email spoofing is a technique that is used in order to trick users into thinking that a message actually came from a different person.


The speed at which new coins are produced and released.


Encryption is a method through which information can be made into code.

Enterprise Blockchain

Enterprise blockchain is the use of distributed ledger technology for non-speculative business purposes. Tailored for the needs of enterprises, these chains may be private or public.

Enterprise Ethereum Alliance (EEA)

A group of organizations and companies working together to further develop the Ethereum network.


One entire run of the training dataset through the algorithm is referred to as an epoch in machine learning.


Equity is the funds that would be returned to a company's shareholders if all of the company's assets were dissolved and all debts were paid off in the event of liquidation.

Erasure Coding

Erasure coding is a method of storing data at multiple locations after doing its segmentation, expansion, and encoding with redundant information.

ERC 7512

ERC-7512 aims to standardize how audit reports are represented directly on Ethereum's blockchain.


ERC-1155 digital token standard was created by Enjin and offers more security in comparison to older token standards. It can be used to create both fungible and non-fungible assets on the Ethereum network.


Tokens designed and used solely on the Ethereum platform.


ERC-223 is an Ethereum token standard that is powered by smart contracts that enable users to securely transfer tokens to a digital wallet.


A token standard for non-fungible Ethereum tokens.


ERC-777 is a tradable token standard spun out from ERC-20 to enable a new way to engage with a token contract while staying backward compatible.


ERC-827 is an ETH token standard that addresses the existing limitations of ERC 20 when it comes to the implementation of calls in transfers and approvals in particular.


ERC-884 facilitates the creation of tradable ERC-20 tokens, each of which symbolizes a numberless share issued by a Delaware corporation.


ERC-948 is a new Ethereum token protocol that is designed to connect subscription businesses with customers and allows for subscription-based transactions.


A financial instrument where assets or cash are held by a third party while a buyer and a seller complete a deal.


Electronic sports, commonly known as e-sports, is a term used for digital gaming competition, in which players battle against each other in an individual or team-based format often in a competition or event that offers huge monetary rewards to the winners. Some e-sports games are also available in a single-player mode.


ETH/BTC is a popular cryptocurrency trading pair that denominates the price of Ethereum in Bitcoin.


Ethash is the algorithm utilized for the proof of work mining Ethereum and ETH-based cryptocurrencies.


The form of payment used in the operation of the distribution application platform, Ethereum.

Ethereum Difficulty

Ethereum difficulty plays a crucial role in maintaining the stability and security of the network, especially in the context of Ethereum's transition to a Proof-of-Stake (PoS) consensus mechanism.

Ethereum ETF

An Ethereum Exchange Traded Fund (ETF) is an investment tool that allows investors to get exposed to Ethereum's price movements through traditional stock exchanges.

Ethereum Improvement Proposal (EIP)

Ethereum Improvement Proposals (EIPs) describe standards for the Ethereum platform, including core protocol specifications, client APIs, and contract standards.

Ethereum Request For Comment (ERC)

Ethereum Request for Comment (ERC) is the protocol to introduce new improvements to the network by developers.

Ethereum Transaction

Ethereum transaction are cryptographically signed instructions to initiate a transaction to update the state of the Ethereum network.

Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM)

A Turing-complete virtual machine that enables execution of code exactly as intended; it is the runtime environment for every smart contract. Every Ethereum node runs on the EVM to maintain consensus across the blockchain.

Event Triggers

When a transaction is mined, smart contracts can emit events and write logs to the blockchain which the frontend can then process.


Businesses that allow customers to trade cryptocurrencies for fiat money or other cryptocurrencies.

Exchange Traded Fund (ETF)

A security that tracks a basket of assets such as stocks, bonds, and cryptocurrencies but can be traded like a single stock.

Exit Scam

An exit scam is a trick where projects disappear (or shut down) after accumulating investors’ money. In other industries, this event occurs when a business stops shipping orders even if it is receiving payment for the new ones.

Fair AI

Fair AI is a new approach to artificial intelligence (AI) that has an emphasis on decentralization and equitability through rewarding individuals for their data and compute contributions.


A fakeout is a sudden and temporary move in a market that tricks traders into thinking that a trend is emerging when, in fact, it is not.

Falling Knife

A falling knife refers to the price dive of an asset and denotes a downward momentum of the financial market.

Falling Wedge

Falling wedges, also known as descending wedges, have a distinct downward slope and a bullish bias in comparison to symmetrical triangles, which have no discernible slope and no bias.

Fan Token

A fan token is a cryptocurrency issued by a specific sports team and allows its holders to participate in the governing activities and attain exclusive rewards & discounts.

FATF Travel Rule

The FATF Travel Rule requires virtual asset service providers to regulate information sharing for certain large transactions.


A cryptocurrency reward system usually on a website or app, that rewards users for completing certain tasks.

Fee Tiers

Fee tiers refer to the fee structure that determines the amount charged when investors deposit or withdraw money and execute trades on a crypto exchange.


Fiat currency is “legal tender” backed by a central government, such as the Federal Reserve, with its own banking system, such as fractional reserve banking. It can take the form of physical cash, or it can be represented electronically, such as with bank credit.

Fiat On-Ramp

A fiat-on ramp is a way to get cryptocurrency from fiat, or regular money.

Fiat-Pegged Cryptocurrency

A coin, token or asset issued on a blockchain that is linked to a government or bank-issued currency.

Fibonacci Retracement Level

The Fibonacci retracement method uses a set of key numbers called Fibonacci ratios to identify the support and resistance levels of an asset/stock/cryptocurrency.

Field Programmable Gate Array

Field Programmable Gate Array is an integrated circuit that allows customers or designers to reconfigure as per requirement after the manufacturing process.

Financial Action Task Force (FATF)

The FATF is a global organization that sets global standards to combat money laundering and terrorist financing (AML/CFT).

Financial Crime Enforcement Network (FinCEN)

The Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN) is a federal regulatory bureau of the United States Treasury.

Financial Transactions and Reports Analysis Centre (FINTRAC)

The Financial Transactions and Reports Analysis Centre (FINTRAC) of Canada is the nation’s financial intelligence agency.

First In, First Out

First in, First Out (FIFO) is an inventory method used to specify your cost-basis when calculating your taxes.

First-Mover Advantage (FMA)

The first-mover advantage refers to the launch of an innovative product or service which provides a head-start to a company by creating brand loyalty and penetrating markets before their future competitors.


Someone who has a small crypto investment.

Flash Crash

A flash crash is a market condition where an asset’s price falls very rapidly within a very brief time interval.

Flash Loan

A flash loan is a transaction in which a specific quantity of liquidity is borrowed and repaid in the same transaction or block.

Flash Loan Attack

Flash loan attacks are when malicious actors exploit a smart contract.

Flash Loans

Flash loans are a type of uncollateralized lending used in decentralized finance (DeFi).


Flashbots was launched as an independent research and development organization with an aim to lessen the adverse effects of the Maximal Extractable Value (MEV) extraction.


Flatcoins are cryptocurrencies whose value is pegged to the cost of living, rather than fiat or commodity.


A hypothetical scenario where Ethereum's market cap overtakes Bitcoin's.


An investment strategy where you buy something with the goal of reselling for a profit later, usually in a short period of time.


An acronym that stands for "Fear of Missing Out."

Fork (Blockchain)

Forks, or chain splits, create an alternate version of the blockchain, leaving two blockchains to run simultaneously.

Fork (Software)

When an entirely new program has been developed from source code, taken from an open source software.

Fork Choice Rule

The fork choice rule is a mechanism in Ethereum that allows nodes to agree on a canonical chain when the network splits into competing forks.

Fractional Stablecoins

A fractional stablecoin is one that is backed in two ways: collaterally-backed and algorithmically modified.

Fraud Proof

A fraud proof is a technological method that functions as a bond in a decentralized environment that uses Optimistic Rollups (ORs), which are sidechains that aim to reduce the costs and latency that dApps might encounter on a blockchain platform.

Front Running

Front running is when you place a transaction in a queue when you have knowledge of a future transaction.

FUD [2021]

An acronym that stands for “Fear, Uncertainty and Doubt.” It is a strategy to influence perception of certain cryptocurrencies or the cryptocurrency market in general by spreading negative, misleading or false information. *see FUDster.


Someone that is spreading FUD.

Full Node

Nodes that download a blockchain’s entire history in order to observe and enforce its rules.

Fully Diluted Value (FDV)

FDV is the total worth or market cap of a cryptocurrency if the entire supply of tokens were in circulation.

Fully Homomorphic Encryption

Fully homomorphic encryption is a type of scheme where one can perform arbitrary computations on encrypted data and generate the same results as when performing those computations on the plaintext.

Fundamental Analysis (FA)

Fundamental analysis is a method of evaluating the underlying economic and financial factors that affect the value of an asset.

Funding Payments

Funding payments are periodic payments between traders. These are designed to reduce the discrepancy between the perpetual market price and the spot market price.


In cryptocurrency, fungibility is when a coin or token can be replaced by any other identical coin or token.

Fusion Rollups

Fusion rollups are a blockchain scalability solution that combines the best of other L2 approaches such as Appchains and Shared Rollups.


Futo is an organization that develops and invests in decentralized technologies and companies.


A futures contract is a standardized legal agreement to buy or sell a particular commodity or asset at a predetermined price at a specified time in the future.


Gains refer to an increase in value or profit.

Game Channels

Game channels are the newest technological advancement in the world of blockchain gaming, as they enable fast gameplay by removing the wait time for block confirmations. With game channels, games and dApps can run off-chain securely, individually, and in near real-time.

Game Theory

Game theory is a way of creating a simplified interactive environment (a ‘game’) that allows researchers to model how people and entities will respond to certain actions.


GameFi, better known as play-to-earn (P2E) games, is a rather new term in the field of both gaming and cryptocurrency industries. It references games that are designed with economic and financial aspects of blockchain and cryptocurrencies, enabling players to exert full control over their in-game assets to generate revenue.


A term used on the Ethereum platform that refers to a unit of measuring the computational effort of conducting transactions or smart contracts, or launch DApps in the Ethereum network. It is the “fuel” of the Ethereum network. *see Gas Limit and Gas Price.

Gas Limit

A term used on the Ethereum platform that refers to the maximum amount of gas the user is willing to spend on a transaction.

Gas Price

A term used on the Ethereum platform that refers to the price you are willing to pay for a transaction.

Gas Station Networks (GSN)

Gas Station Networks (GSN) allows you to build decentralized applications (dApps) which provide payment for transactions, so users do not need to hold Ether or ETH to pay for gas, easing their onboarding process and improving user acquisition and experience.

Gavin Wood

Gavin Wood is the co-founder of Parity Technologies, and one of the founders of Ethereum.


Gem is a term for relatively unknown low-cap coins that have immense potential or are grossly undervalued.

Genesis Block

The first block of data that is processed and validated to form a new blockchain, often referred to as block 0 or block 1.

Geotagged NFT

Geotagged non-fungible tokens (NFT) feature 3D versions of the street art alongside the corresponding geo-location. They allows art aficionados to own both the virtual and physical artwork without the need to remove the actual infrastructure it was originally painted on.


Geth, short for Go Ethereum, is a command-line interface that allows developers to run full Ethereum nodes, mine the cryptocurrency and execute smart contracts.


GitHub is one of the most popular code hosting platforms, allowing developers to collaborate on various projects.

Goguen Phase

The Goguen phase of Cardano allows the development of smart contracts and DApps.

Gold-Backed Cryptocurrency

A coin or token issued that represents a value of gold; for example, one physical gram of gold equals one coin.

Golden Cross

A golden cross is a bullish technical trading indicator that emerges when the 50-day moving average crosses the 200-day moving average, signaling an imminent price rise of the asset/stock/cryptocurrency.

Google Authenticator

Google Authenticator is a software-based verification system that generates unique one-time codes that are time-based on your mobile phone.


In the world of cryptocurrencies, governance is defined as the people or organizations that have decision-making powers regarding the project.

Governance Token

A governance token is a token that can be used to vote on decisions that influence an ecosystem.

GPG Encryption

GNU Privacy Guard (GPG) is a popular OpenPGP (Pretty Good Privacy) implementation. It is an open-source alternative to PGP that encrypts and signs communications and data securely.

Graphical Processing Unit (GPU)

More commonly known as a graphics card, it is a computer chip that creates 3D images on computers, but has turned out to be efficient for mining cryptocurrencies.

Gray Swan Event

Gray swan is a significant event whose occurrence could be predicted, but the likelihood is low.

Greater Fool Theory

The greater fool theory was first discussed by professor Burton Malkiel. It suggests that there is always a “greater fool” that you can sell an overvalued asset to.

Green Candle

A green candle is an indication of the price closing higher than the opening price. The green candle is an indication that the overall sentiment of the market at the time of trading was bullish, or positive. A wide body with a small tail on top indicates a strong bullish movement in the market.

Group Mining

As opposed to solo mining, group mining is when multiple people mine together.


The denomination used in defining the cost of gas in transactions involving Ether.


Hacking is the process of using a computer to manipulate another computer or computer system in an unauthorized fashion.

Hal Finney

Hal Finney was a cryptographer and programmer who pioneered Bitcoin’s development and worked with Satoshi Nakamoto.

Hard Cap

A hard cap is the absolute maximum supply of a digital asset.

Hard Fork (Blockchain)

A type of protocol change that validates all previously invalid transactions, and invalidates all previously valid transactions.

Hard Fork Combinator

A hard fork combinator (first designed by IOHK) is a tool to combine protocols specifically on the Cardano blockchain after a hard fork has occurred.

Hard Peg

A hard peg is an exchange rate policy, where a currency is set at a fixed rate against another currency.

Hardware Security Module

A hardware security module is a type of computing device that secures digital keys and encrypts data.

Hardware Wallet

A hardware wallet is a wallet for cryptocurrencies that usually resemble a USB stick.


A hash is the output result of a hashing algorithm, which creates a unique, fixed-length string to encrypt and secure a certain selection of arbitrary data.

Hash Function

Any function used to map data of arbitrary size to data of a fixed size. *see Cryptographic Hash Function.

Hash Power / Hash Rate

A unit of measurement for the amount of computing power being consumed by the network to continuously operate.

Hashed Timelock Contract (HTLC)

A hashed timelock contract (HTLC) is an agreement between two parties that requires no trust between two users by offering special features to reduce risk.

Hashgraph Consensus Mechanism

The hashgraph consensus is an advanced and up-to-date version of the technology that enables consensus mechanisms.

Haskell Programming Language

The Haskell programming language is a standardized, general-purpose, statically-typed, purely functional programming language that came into existence in 1990.

Hedge Contract

A hedge contract is a form of insurance that investors use to hedge against the risk of financial loss. Typically, a hedge is designed to protect against price fluctuations in the market.

Hedge Fund

A hedge fund is pooled investment fund that employs a number of investment strategies in a variety of liquid asset classes.

Hidden Cap

Hidden cap is an unknown limit to the amount of money a team elects to receive from investors in its initial coin offering (ICO). The purpose of a hidden cap is to even the playing field by letting smaller investors put in money, without the large investors forming an accurate understanding of the total cap and adjusting their investment as a result.

Hierarchical Deterministic Wallet (HD Wallet)

A wallet that uses Hierarchical Deterministic (HD) protocol to support the generation of crypto-wallets from a single master seed using 12 mnemonic phrases. *see Deterministic Wallet.

Higher High

A higher high is when the price of a cryptocurrency closes higher than the previous day, which itself closed at a high.

Higher Low

A higher low is when the price of a cryptocurrency closes at a level that is higher than the close of the previous day.


A type of passive investment strategy where you hold an investment for a long period of time, regardless of any changes in the price or markets. The term first became famous due to a typo made in a Bitcoin forum, and the term is now commonly expanded to stand for “Hold On for Dear Life.”


Honeyminer is a cryptocurrency mining app available for download on multiple devices.


A honeypot is a scam used in the crypto industry to trap victims and steal their assets or sensitive information.

Hostage Byte Attack

A Hostage Byte Attack is a distributed denial of service (DDoS) attack against a user that stored its data on a malicious storage node and is asked to pay ransom to retrieve its data.

Hosted Wallet

A wallet managed by a third-party service.

Hot Storage

The online storage of private keys allowing for quicker access to cryptocurrencies. *see Cold Storage.

Hot Wallet

A cryptocurrency wallet that is connected to the internet for hot storage of cryptoassets.

Howey Test

A test used to determine whether or not an asset is a security.

Human-Readable Names

In computer programming, human-readable refers to making information able to be read naturally by humans and stands in opposition to machine-readable format - i.e binary.

Huobi BTC (HBTC)

Launched by Huobi, Huobi BTC or HBTC is a standard ERC-20 token pegged to BTC on a 1:1 ratio.

Hybrid PoW/PoS

A hybrid PoW/PoS allows for both proof-of-stake and proof-of-work as consensus distribution algorithms on the network. This approach aims to bring together the security of PoW consensus and the governance and energy efficiency of PoS.

Hydra (Cardano)

Hydra is a layer-two scaling solution for the Cardano blockchain that aims to increase the transaction processing capacity of the network by allowing multiple heads or channels.


Hyperinflation is defined as unrestricted growth in prices for goods and services in an economy. It happens when resources become limited, such as gas or food, and prices rise as demand outstrips supply.

Hyperledger (Hyperledger Foundation)

Hyperledger is an umbrella project of open source blockchains and blockchain-related tools started by the Linux Foundation in 2015 to support the collaborative development of blockchain-based distributed ledgers.


A property that defines the inability to be changed, especially over time.

Impermanent Loss

Impermanent loss is when a liquidity provider has a temporary loss of funds because of volatility in a trading pair.

In-the-Money / Out-of-the-Money

In-the-money and out-of-the-money are options trading mechanisms that allow investors to benefit from additional tools to work with the market.

Infinite Approval

Pre-approving smart contracts to enable the platform to spend any amount of your coins.

Infinite Mint Attack

An infinite mint attack occurs when an unwanted entity or hacker mints an absurd ("infinite") amount of tokens within a protocol.


A general increase in prices and fall in the purchasing value of money.

Initial Bounty Offering (IBO)

A novel way of launching a project that focuses on people contributing skills to a platform rather than money.

Initial Coin Offering (ICO)

Short for Initial Coin Offering, an ICO is a type of crowdfunding, or crowdsale, using cryptocurrencies as a means of raising capital for early-stage companies.

Initial Dex Offering (IDO)

An initial dex offering (IDX) is an alternative to an initial coin offering (ICO).

Initial Exchange Offering

A type of crowdfunding where crypto start-ups generate capital by listing through an exchange.

Initial Farm Offering (IFO)

Initial Farm Offering (IFO) helps DeFi projects raise capital through the farming feature offered by decentralized exchanges.

Initial Game Offering (IGO)

Initial game offerings (IGOs) provide individuals with an opportunity to invest in gaming projects at an early stage that have the potential to offer huge returns after their launch.

Initial NFT Offering (INO)

A crypto crowdfunding solution where projects can raise funds by listing a set of NFTs via a launchpad.

Initial Public Offering (IPO)

An initial public offering (IPO) is the process of a company offering shares for purchase on the stock market for the first time.

Initial Stake Pool Offering (ISPO)

The Initial Stake Pool Offering (ISPO) is a comparatively new crypto fundraising method exclusive to the Cardano ecosystem. Unlike existing fundraising models, ISPOs are more inclusive, decentralized, equitable, and secure.

Initial Token Offering (ITO)

ITOs are similar to initial coin offerings — but have more of a focus on offering tokens with intrinsic utility in the form of software or usage in an ecosystem.

Input-Output Hong Kong (IOHK)

Now Input-Output Global, Input-Output Hong Kong (IOHK) was launched in 2015 by Charles Hoskinson to provide a blockchain infrastructure to research & engineering companies.

Insider Trading

Insider trading happens when someone purchases or sells stocks while possessing private, material information about that stock.


When a large portion of a coin’s total supply is distributed to investors shortly after launch.

Instant Settlement Network Layer

Instant settlement network allows participants to exchange digital assets in real-time from anywhere in the world.

Institutional Investor

An Institutional Investor is an organization or a legal entity that trades in the market on behalf of its clients that may be retail investors.

Insurance Fund

An exchange insurance fund is used to cover any unexpected losses from leveraged trading. This fund is used to prevent traders from bankruptcy in the event of liquidations.

Integrated Application

Integrated Applications combine the advantages of appchains (customizability, performance, interoperability) and smart contracts (composability, standardization, minimal overhead) to enable developers to build better applications that can onboard users from anywhere.

Integrated Development Environment (IDE)

An integrated development environment (IDE) is a type of software that helps you develop apps by merging many development tools into a single graphical user interface (GUI).

Intellectual Property (IP)

Intellectual property (IP) is a type of property that can be legally protected from being copied or sold – it includes intangible creations that result from human thinking such as a book, song, design, business method, or software.

Inter-Blockchain Communication (IBC)

Inter-Blockchain Communication (IBC) is a communication protocol that allows different blockchains to relay messages to each other.

Intercontinental Exchange (ICE)

The Intercontinental Exchange (ICE) is an American company founded in 2000 to purchase and operate global exchanges and clearing houses.

Interest Rates

A time-dependent charge or return made in proportion to the amount of money deposited, borrowed or lent.


A person or entity that acts as the go-between different parties to bring about agreements or carry out directives.

Internal Transaction

An internal transaction, also known as a "message," is a byproduct of an EOA interaction with a contract address that results in Ether being transferred.

Internet Layer

Internet layer is the third layer in the TCP/IP model and is responsible for the transportation of network packets.

Internet Memes

A meme is an image, a video, or a piece of text that is copied and spread rapidly by internet users. They are typically humorous but can also be critical as well.

Internet of Things

Internet of Things (IoT) is a global interconnected network of devices, sensors and software that can collect and exchange data with each other in real-time over the Internet.

Internet Service Provider (ISP)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs) are commercial entities that provide end-users with access to the internet.


Blockchain interoperability, or cross-chain interoperability, is the ability to see and share information across multiple blockchains.

InterPlanetary File System (IPFS)

The InterPlatery File System is a peer-to-peer, distributed system for storing and accessing files, as well as websites and applications, which relies on content addressing rather than location.

Intrinsic Value

The intrinsic value of an asset depicts the asset’s actual worth based on a complex financial calculation rather than its current price.


Investing is when you put money in a financial scheme with the intent of making a gain.

Investment Vehicles (Crypto-tied)

Investment vehicles are the assets (classes) in which investors put their money with hopes to increase the value of their portfolio in the future.


An IOU, acronym for “I owe you,” is a document stating that one party owes a debt to another party.

IP Address

IP addresses are unique numeric addresses assigned to devices connected to the internet or a local network.

Isolated Margin

This mode is useful for traders who want to take speculative positions, and where there is a probable chance of their speculation turning out to be incorrect. In such a situation, the user will be better protected as compared to cross-margin mode because only their isolated margin balance will face liquidation, instead of their entire margin balance. The downside of using isolated margin is that your exposure will be limited to one position in a particular market.


The consensus mechanism of Fantom blockchain.


Slang for the type of car that many crypto enthusiasts aspire to buy when their digital assets “moon” — or rise in value substantially.

Large Cap

Well-established projects and organizations having a market capitalization of $10 billion or above are called large cap or big cap projects/organizations.

Laser Eyes

Laser eyes is a viral Twitter meme that is used by Bitcoiners who attempt to push the price of BTC to its new all-time highs. It was originated with a hashtag, #LaserRayUntil100, back in February 2021.

Law of Accelerating Returns

The Law of Accelerating Returns is a hypothesis by Ray Kurzweil based on the observations that technologies (or any evolutionary system) tend to progress in an exponential fashion.

Layer 0

Layer 0 is a network framework running beneath the blockchain. It is made up of protocols, connections, hardware, miners, and everything else that forms the foundation of the blockchain ecosystem.

Layer 2

Layer 2 is the name given to a scaling solution that enables high throughput of transactions whilst fully inheriting the security of the underlying blockchain that it is built on. 

Layer-1 Blockchain

A layer-1 blockchain is a set of solutions that improve the base protocol itself

Leased Proof of Stake (LPoS)

Leased Proof of Stake (LPoS) is a consensus mechanism that allows cryptocurrency holders to lease their coins to nodes on a network.


A record of financial transactions that cannot be changed, only appended with new transactions.


Money that a trader borrows from a brokerage, enabling them to gain far greater exposure to a position than what their capital allows.

Leveraged Tokens

In the world of cryptocurrencies, leveraged tokens give you a leveraged position in trading, meaning that your earnings and losses are multiplied.


Libp2p is an open network protocol for decentralized peer-to-peer networking.

Light Node

Light nodes are typically downloaded wallets and are connected to full nodes to further validate the information that is stored on the blockchain.

Lightning Network

A second-layer protocol that is designed to solve Bitcoin’s scalability problem by allowing transactions to be processed more quickly.

Limit Order

A limit order is a type of order to purchase or sell a security at a specified price or a better one. 

Limit Order/Limit Buy/Limit Sell

Tools that enable traders to automatically buy or sell cryptocurrencies on a trading platform when a certain price target is reached.

LINK (Chainlink)

LINK is an Ethereum-based token that is used to pay Chainlink node operators.

Liquid Market

A liquid market features a large number of buyers and sellers. It is a platform where all the trades are executed with ease and at a low cost.

Liquid Proof of Stake (LPoS)

Liquid proof of stake (LPoS) is an improvement over traditional proof of stake (PoS) that allows users to stake assets without fully locking them up.

Liquid Staking

Liquid staking allows users to stake tokens and simultaneously use them in the DeFi ecosystem.

Liquid Staking (Fantom)

A staking mechanism by the Fantom blockchain that allows you to earn yield by staking tokens for a longer duration.

Liquid Staking Derivatives

Liquid Staking Derivatives (LSDs) are tokens that represent staked assets in a DeFi protocol.


Liquidation refers to the conversion of an asset or cryptocurrency for fiat or its equivalents.


Liquidity indicates how easy it is to convert a cryptocurrency into cash quickly — and whether this can be achieved without the asset’s value suffering.

Liquidity Bootstrapping Pool (LBP)

A liquidity bootstrapping pool is essentially a contract that manages a core pool containing tokens to be used on an exchange.

Liquidity Hooks

A Liquidity Hook is a highly composable plugin for liquidity, enabling protocols to seamlessly integrate with platforms for capital access and developing yield/trading strategies.

Liquidity Mining

Liquidity mining is a mechanism or process in which participants supply cryptocurrencies into liquidity pools, and are rewarded with fees and tokens based on their share of the total pool liquidity.

Liquidity Pool

Liquidity pools are crypto assets that are kept to facilitate the trading of trading pairs on decentralized exchanges.

Liquidity Provider

Liquidity providers are decentralized exchange users who fund a liquidity pool with tokens they own.

Liquidity Provider Tokens (LP Tokens)

Liquidity provider tokens or LP tokens are tokens issued to liquidity providers on a decentralized exchange (DEX) that run on an automated market maker (AMM) protocol.


A guarantee that a system will continue to provide data, and that no centralized authority can shut down its services.


LMD GHOST (aka the GHOST Protocol) is a fork-choice rule that allows the nodes in a blockchain network to reach an agreement on the valid state of the ledger.

Loan-to-value (LTV)

Used by lenders, loan-to-value (LTV) is the assessment ratio of risk involved while approving a loan. Simply, it is the ratio of the loan's value to the value of the collateral.

Location Swap

Location swap allows the change of claim to the assets manifested in the form of a token with no effect on other attributes.


A situation where you buy a cryptocurrency with the expectation of selling it at a higher price for profit later.

Longing (Long Position)

A long position (longing) refers to the situation where an investor buys a cryptocurrency or any other financial instrument to sell it later when the price goes high.


The smallest denomination of ADA is called Lovelace.

Lower High

A lower high is when the price of a cryptocurrency closes at a high but lower than the previous day.

Lower Low

A lower low is when the price of a cryptocurrency closes lower than the previous day, which itself closed at a low.


A mainchain is the base blockchain layer where all transactions are processed and finalized.


An independent blockchain running its own network with its own technology and protocol.

Mainnet Swap

Mainnet swap refers to the shift of a cryptocurrency project from one blockchain network to another (which in most cases is its own native blockchain network).

Maker Protocol (MakerDAO)

The Maker Protocol allows users to leverage their assets as collateral that are approved by the Maker governance in order to get rewarded with DAI.


Malware or malicious software refers to harmful programs utilized by bad actors to illegally access and/or compromise a computer, network or server.

Man-in-the-Middle Attack (MITM)

a man-in-the-middle attack (MITM) attack is a general term for a cyberattack where a perpetrator positions himself in a conversation between two parties either to secretly eavesdrop.

Margin Call

When an investor’s account value falls below the margin maintenance amount.

Margin Trading

A practice where a trader uses borrowed funds from a broker to trade a cryptocurrency.


An area or arena, online or offline, in which commercial dealings are conducted.

Market Balances

Market balances refer to the outstanding amount of tokens or coins after a trade has been made on a decentralized exchange (DEX).

Market Capitalization/Market Cap/MCAP

Total capitalization of a cryptocurrency’s price. It is one of the ways to rank the relative size of a cryptocurrency. *see Circulating Supply.

Market Maker, Market Taker

The maker places an order (to buy or sell at a quoted price), while a taker accepts that placed order (to execute the buy or sell at the quoted price)

Market Making as a Service (MMaaS)

Market Making as a Service (MMaaS) is a technology service that enables token issuers to set their strategies in market making, allowing them to trade and manage their own liquidity.

Market Order/Market Buy/Market Sell

A purchase or sale of a cryptocurrency on an exchange at the current best available price.

Market Signal

Through signaling, market participants are essentially creating a volatile market which can help to point out the opportunities to the investors.

Markets in Crypto-Assets (MiCA)

The Markets in Crypto-Assets (MiCA) regulation is a comprehensive regulatory framework instituted by the European Union (EU) to govern the issuance, trading, and provision of services related to crypto.


Developed by Input Output Hong Kong (IOHK), Marlowe is an easy-to-use programming language for experts with no programming expertise or knowledge, enabling them to write smart contracts for financial products.


Masternodes are a server maintained by its owner, somewhat like full nodes, but with additional functionalities such as anonymizing transactions, clearing transactions, and participating in governance and voting. It was initially popularized by Dash to reward owners of these servers for maintaining a service for the blockchain.

Max Supply

The best approximation of the maximum amount of coins that will ever exist in the lifetime of the cryptocurrency. *see Circulating Supply and Total Supply.

Maximal Extractable Value (MEV)

Maximal extractable value (MEV) is a measure of the profit a miner can make through their ability to arbitrarily include, exclude, or re-order transactions within the blocks they produce. 

Medium of Exchange

A medium of exchange can be seen as an intermediary instrument or system that is used to facilitate a sale, purchase or even trade of goods between parties. 

Megahashes Per Second

Megahashes per second (MH/s) is a unit of measurement that equals one million hashes per second.

Meme Economy

Meme Economy is a satirical online subculture in which memes are addressed in financial language as if they were commodities or capital assets with varying prices.


Memecoins are the crypto tokens created as a joke or meme and claim to offer huge gains to holders.

Memorandum of Understanding (MoU)

A Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) is defined as a written agreement between two or more parties, which is legally-non binding.


A mempool is the node's collection of all of the unconfirmed transactions that it has seen.

Mercenary Capital

Mercenary capital refers to the opportunistic capital provided by investors seeking to take advantage of the short-term incentive programs conducted by a platform for individual gain.

Merkle Tree

A tree structure in cryptography, in which every leaf node is labelled with the hash of a data block and every non-leaf node is labelled with the cryptographic hash of the labels of its child nodes. Hash trees allow efficient and secure verification of the contents of blockchains, as each change propagates upwards so verification can be done by simply looking at the top hash.


An online digital wallet that allows users to manage, transfer and receive Ethereum, operating as an extension to a regular browser.


A metatransaction executes a transaction signed by another party on behalf of the original signer, ferrying this original transaction onto the public blockchain rather than the person having to do it themselves


A metaverse is a digital universe that contains all the aspects of the real world, such as real-time interactions and economies. It offers a unique experience to end-users.

Metaverse-as-a-Service (MaaS)

Metaverse-as-a-Service (MaaS) is a novel technological solution that anyone can use to build their own metaverses. The service provider offers the necessary infrastructure to enable both developers and non-technical users to create immersive virtual experiences alongside additional features like in-game tokenomics, NFTs, play-to-earn models, and much more.

Metcalfe’s Law

Metcalfe’s Law is a way of describing the use of networks and highlights that the more users a network has, the more valuable it is to each individual user.

Micro Cap

A digital asset with a very small market capitalization is referred to as a micro-cap stock/asset/cryptocurrency in the financial sector.

MicroBitcoin (uBTC)

One millionth of a bitcoin or 0.000001 of a bitcoin. Often confused as a fork of Bitcoin.


Microchains are lightweight chains that operate in parallel within a common set of validators. In a microchain-based network, the role of proposing blocks is separate from the role of validating them.


A micropayment is essentially a small transaction that is carried out online and can be as small as a fraction of a cent.


A business model where very small payments can be made in exchange for common digital goods and services, such as pages of an ebook or items in a game.

Mid Cap

Mid cap is a measure derived from a mathematical computation that determines the market value of a cryptocurrency with a market capitalization ranging from $1 billion to $10 billion.


MilliBitcoin, also known as mBTC, is a sub-unit of Bitcoin which is equivalent to the one-thousandth of a BTC, the most famous and valuable cryptocurrency in the world.

Mimetic Theory

Mimetic theory explains human behavior and culture, and when understood contextually in economics, it deals with how things become desirable to individuals.


Some cryptocurrencies have a system through which miners can be rewarded with newly-created cryptocurrencies for creating blocks through contributing their hash power. Cryptocurrencies with this ability to generate new cryptocurrencies through the process of confirmation is said to be mineable. * Not Mineable Some cryptocurrencies are generated only through other mechanisms, such as annual inflation through staking. These cryptocurrencies are said to be not mineable.


Minecraft is a video game where players can essentially create and break apart different kinds of blocks in a three-dimensional world.


Contributors to a blockchain taking part in the process of mining. They can be professional miners or organizations with large-scale operations, or hobbyists who set up mining rigs at home or in the office.

Minimum Collateralization Ratio (MCR)

Minimum Collateralization Ratio (MCR) is the least amount of collateral that needs to be pledged against a given loan.

Minimum Viable Product (MVP)

A minimum viable product (MVP) is a product that has enough features to attract early-adopter customers and validate a product idea.


Cryptocurrency mining is a process where blocks are added to a blockchain, verifying transactions. It is also the process through which new Bitcoin and *some* altcoins are created.

Mining Algorithm

An integral component of blockchain, a mining algorithm is the set of rules or instructions that a computer follows to generate a valid block.

Mining as a Service (MaaS)

Cloud mining or mining-as-a-service allows users to rent the mining capacity of hardware in companies.

Mining Contract

Another term for cloud mining, where users can rent or invest in mining capacity online.

Mining Difficulty

The mining difficulty of a cryptocurrency is how difficult it is to find the right hash for the next block.

Mining Farm

A mining farm is when a group of miners mine together for a variety of advantageous reasons, like energy use.

Mining Pool

An arrangement where a number of miners pool their resources to increase their chances of finding the next block.

Mining Reward

The income that miners receive after finding and validating a block.

Mining Rewards

Mining rewards are the rewards that crypto miners receive for mining a new block on the blockchain.

Mining Rig

Equipment that is used for mining cryptocurrencies.


An alternative term to Fish, describing someone with a small crypto investment.


Minting is the process of generating new coins using the proof-of-stake mechanism and adding them to the circulation to be traded.

Mnemonic Phrase

A list of words used in sequence to access or restore your crypto assets.


Mnemonics are memory aids with a system such as letters or associations that help in recall. *see Mnemonic Phrase.

Mobile Wallet

A mobile wallet is a crypto wallet installed on a mobile device.

Modular Proof Verification

Modular proof verification is a process where confirming the validity and correctness of a ZK Proof, one of the most expensive parts of running ZK rollups and ZK apps, is offloaded to a dedicated service.

Moloch DAO

Moloch DAO can refer to the DAO framework, a description of a DAO that uses the framework, or the name of the Ethereum grant-giving DAO that originally created the framework.

Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS)

The Monetary Authority of Singapore is the central bank managing money supply and regulating interest rates, inflation rate, and value for Singaporean currency.

Monetary Policy

Monetary policy can be defined as a set of rules that a country’s central bank makes to control the supply of money.


Money is a widely used medium of exchange. It facilitates trade and gives people a way to store wealth.

Money Flow Index (MFI)

The Money Flow Index (MFI) is a technical indicator that measures the buying or selling pressure of an asset through price and volume.

Money Laundering

Money laundering is a technique used for illegal businesses to hide their money from the authorities.

Money Market

A financial market where short-term lending or borrowing takes place.

Money Transfer License

Money transmitter businesses need to acquire MTL or Money Transmitter License to be able to operate legally.

Money Transmitter

A business entity that provides money transfer services or payment instruments.


‍Monopoly is a type of market structure in which there is only one seller of a particular good or service.


A situation where there is a continuous upward movement in the price of a cryptocurrency. Often used in communities to question when a cryptocurrency will experience such a phenomenon, saying “When moon?” It is usually combined with “When Lambo?”

Moore's Law

Moore's Law states that computers' speed and capability will increase every year, even as cost goes down.

Motoko Programming Language (DFINITY)

The programming language for developing projects to run on the Internet Computer blockchain.

Move (Programming Language)

Move is a programming language initially used to build the Diem blockchain. It was created by the Diem Association, which was a tech consortium backed by Meta.


One of the newest blockchain-powered innovations, move-to-earn is a concept that encourages users to stay physically active by incentivizing them with crypto-based rewards.

Moving Average (MA)

Moving Average (MA) is a technical indicator that reacts to the trends of the financial markets and is used by market experts to predict the direction of an asset's trend.

Moving Average Convergence Divergence (MACD)

A technical analysis method.

Mt. Gox

A crypto exchange for buying and selling Bitcoin that closed in 2014 after a major hack.


Multi-chain is a foundational term that promotes blockchain interoperability and decentralization.

Multi-Coin Wallet

A multi-coin wallet, also known as a multi-chain wallet, allows users to keep more than one crypto asset belonging to multiple blockchain networks.

Multi-level Marketing

Multi-level marketing is a business model that involves selling products on behalf of a company by unsalaried and hierarchical sales teams – earning commissions based on their sales and recruiting efforts.

Multi-Party Computation

Multi-party computation (MPC) is a cryptographic mechanism that distributes computation operations across several parties where no singular entity can see the other parties’ data.

Multi-Party Computation as-a-Service

Multi-party computation (MPC) as-a-service is a business model where consumers (enterprises and individuals) can rent MPC nodes from an MPC service provider instead of outright buying them or building them from scratch.

Multi-Signature (Multi-Sig)

An added layer of security by requiring more than one key to authorize a transaction.


Multisignature crypto wallets require more than a single signature to sign a transaction.

Mutual Credit Line

Mutual credit is a multilateral exchange network in which money created endogenously within the network serves as a medium of exchange.

My Story (VeChain)

A digital assurance system built on a blockchain by DNV and VeChain.

Name Wrapper

Name Wrapper is a smart contract that allows all registered ENS names to be converted into NFTs, expanding their customizability.

Negative Volume Index (NVI)

The negative volume index (NVI) is a powerful technical indicator that shows how price is being influenced by low-volume timeframes.


A network refers to all nodes in the operation of a blockchain at any given moment in time.

Network Latency

Network latency refers to the amount of time it takes for a computer on one network to communicate with a computer on another network.

Network-Enhanced Virtual Machine (NEVM)

A Network-Enhanced Virtual Machine (NEVM) combines the best attributes of the Bitcoin (BTC) and Ethereum (ETH) networks, enabling smart contracts to leverage unprecedented levels of interoperability and scalability to support broad mass adoption.


A newb is someone that is new to a certain industry.

NFT Royalties

NFT royalties are a way for creators to earn a percentage of the sale value each time their NFT is sold on the secondary market.


NGMI stands for "Not Gonna Make It," and is a slang that's become increasingly popular in the cryptocurrency community. At its core, NGMI is a dismissive and pessimistic expression used to convey doubt, skepticism, or a lack of confidence in something – whether it's a particular investment, a crypto project, or even someone's trading strategy.

Nick Szabo

Nick Szabo is the inventor of Bit Gold and the use of smart contracts.

Nifty Gateway

Nifty Gateway is an NFT platform owned by the Winklevoss twins.


A no-coiner is someone who has no cryptocurrency in his or her investment portfolio and firmly believes that cryptocurrency in general will fail.


The most basic unit of blockchain infrastructure that stores data.


Node.js is a cross-platform JavaScript runtime environment that can be used for both servers and desktop apps.


Nominators are one of two main actors who are involved in a blockchain network that uses the nominated proof-of-stake (NPoS) consensus algorithm.


Usually referring to the storage of keys, in relation to wallets or exchanges, a non-custodial setup is one in which private keys are held by the user directly.

Non-fungible Assets

The term "non-fungible assets" describes non-fungibility within a collection of similar assets being issued by a single party.

Non-Fungible Token (NFT)

Non-fungible tokens (NFTs) are cryptocurrencies that do not possess the property of fungibility.


When a transaction is hashed by a miner, an arbitrary number meant to be used only once is generated, called a nonce.

Nonce Error

A nonce error occurs when a nonce - a number used only once - is misused or mishandled in a system.

Notarization on Blockchain

Notarization on blockchain simply uses the intrinsic nature and advantages of blockchain technology to let anyone create a timestamped artifact. The authorship and identity of this artifact can easily and securely be identified at any point.


Odysee is a server-less video hosting and distribution platform built on top of the LBRY protocol.


A transaction that is processed outside the blockchain network with an increased speed and reduced cost.

Off-Chain Governance

Off-chain governance is a type of blockchain governance in which decisions are made informally, away from the primary code base of the blockchain.

Off-Chain Transaction

An off-chain transaction is defined as a second-layer protocol where the transactions occur on a network and move value outside of the blockchain.

Off-Ledger Currency

A currency that is created (minted) outside of the specified blockchain ledger but is accepted or used.

Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC)

The Office of the Comptroller (OCC) is a U.S. Treasury branch that regulates all national banks, federal savings associations, federal branches and foreign bank agencies

Offline Storage

The act of storing cryptocurrencies in devices or systems not connected to the internet.

Offshore Account

An offshore account is defined as a foreign bank account with assets and investments set outside of your origin country or country of residence.

OHM Fork

OlympusDAO or Ohm Forks represent the upgrades to OlympusDAO’s codebase that has given birth to a variety of forked products.

On-Balance Volume (OBV)

On-balance volume (OBV) is a technical trading indicator that forecasts an asset's price movements based on the volume flow.


Transactions that are recorded on the blockchain itself and shared with all of the participants are done on-chain.

On-Chain Governance

On-chain governance is a decentralized framework used for organizing and integrating updates/improvements to the blockchain networks.

On-Ledger Currency

A currency that is both minted on the blockchain ledger and also used on the blockchain ledger, such as Bitcoin.

Onchain Fiat

Onchain fiat is a first-of-its-kind, fully authorized and regulated subset of stablecoins that allows for seamless transitions between traditional bank accounts and web3.

One Cancels the Other Order (OCO)

A situation where two orders for cryptocurrency are placed simultaneously, with a rule in place to enforce that if one is accepted, the other is cancelled.

Online Storage

The act of storing cryptocurrencies in devices or systems connected to the internet.

Ontorand Consensus Engine (Ontology)

Ontorand Consensus Engine is the VBFT consensus mechanism on the Ontology blockchain.

Open Interest

Open interest refers to the total number of outstanding derivative contracts, specifically futures and options, that are held by market participants at the end of each trading session.

Open Source

Open source is a philosophy, with participants believing in the free and open sharing of information in pursuit of the greater common good.


The price at which a cryptocurrency opens at a time period or the programming principle of software parts being extendable.


OpenSea is a decentralized P2P platform for NFTs.

Opera Mainnet (Fantom)

Opera (Fantom) is a permissionless, open-source framework that allows everyone to engage in the network through staking and governance.

Operating System (OS)

An operating system (OS) is a software and a resource manager that sits between the hardware and the user.

Optimistic Oracle

An optimistic oracle uses a dispute/arbitration process to ensure data accuracy. This compares to a price-feed oracle, which relies on nodes to provide consistent price feed data on-chain.

Optimistic Rollup

An optimistic rollup is a type of layer-2 scaling solution that relies on off-chain computation to record transactions in layer 2 trustlessly.


A contract giving the buyer the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell an underlying asset or instrument at a specified strike price.

Options Market

A public market for options, giving the buyer an option to buy or sell a cryptocurrency at a specific strike price, on or before a specific date.

Oracle Extractable Value (OEV)

Oracle Extractable Value (OEV) is a type of Maximal Extractable Value (MEV) that oracles can control.

Oracle Manipulation

Oracle manipulation is when an oracle smart contract is manipulated by hackers.


An agent that finds and verifies information, bridging the real world and the blockchain by providing data to smart contracts for execution of said contracts under specified conditions.

Order Book

An order book comprises different key information regarding an asset.


A valid block on the blockchain that is not part of the main chain.

Orphaned Block

An orphaned block is a block where the parent block does not exist or is unknown.

Ouroboros Praos

Ouroboros Praos is a proof-of-stake consensus mechanism developed by IOHK and is an updated version of Ouroboros Classic.


Over-collateralization (OC) is the provision of collateral that is worth more than enough to cover potential losses in cases of default.

Over-the-Counter (OTC)

Over-the-counter is defined as a transaction made outside of an exchange, often peer-to-peer through private trades.

Over-the-Counter (OTC) Trading

Over-the-counter refers to the process of how securities are traded through a broker-dealer network as opposed to a centralized exchange.


When a cryptocurrency has been purchased by more and more investors over time, with its price increasing for an extended period of time.


When a cryptocurrency has been sold by more and more investors over time, with its price decreasing for an extended period of time.

P2P Bridge

A P2P bridge is a feature on decentralized exchanges (DEX) that enables two users to swap the same cryptocurrency across two blockchain protocols without involving a third party.


P2P DEX, or peer-to-peer decentralized exchange, is a blockchain-based application that supports P2P trading.

P2P Trading

Peer-to-peer (P2P) trading involves decentralized transactions where two users swap cryptocurrencies directly with each other. Both buyers and sellers interact without the involvement of a third party.


Trade between one cryptocurrency and another, for example, the trading pair BTC/ETH.

Paper Trading

Paper trading or simulated trading is the practice of using a virtual transactional environment to simulate trading without the use of real capital.

Paper Wallet

A physical document containing your private key or seed phrase.


Parachains are application-specific data structures that run in parallel to each other within Polkadot.

Participation Node

Participation nodes are present in the Algorand platform to help in conducting the Pure Proof of Stake (PPoS) consensus process.

Passive Income

Passive income is money produced from investments that do not require the earner to be actively involved.

Password Manager

A password manager is a tool or software that stores all sorts of passwords needed for online applications and services.

Paul Le Roux

Paul Le Roux is a criminal kingpin that many believe could be the founder of Bitcoin, Satoshi Nakamoto.


A payee is a party within an exchange of goods or even services that can receive payment.

Peer-to-Peer (P2P)

The decentralized interactions between parties in a distributed network, partitioning tasks or workloads between peers.

Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Lending

Crypto P2P lending refers to a practice of lending assets without the involvement of a middleman. Such loans rely on collateral material originally owned by borrowers.


A “peg” is a specified price for the rate of exchange between two assets.

Pegged Currency

A stablecoin is a currency whose value is pegged to a real-world asset, such as a fiat currency.

Permissioned Ledger

A ledger designed with restrictions, such that only people or organizations requiring access have permission to access it.


Often used to describe blockchains, a system is said to be permissionless when there is no entity that can regulate who can use it and how it can be used.

Permissionless Market Creation

Permissionless market creation refers to a system in which anyone can set up a financial market that facilitates the exchange of funds or assets between two or more parties without needing approval.

Perpetual Contracts

A perpetual contract is a derivative similar to a futures contract but without an expiry date.

Perpetual Futures

Perpetual futures are like futures (derivative contracts or agreements to buy or sell a commodity at a specified price) but without an expiration date. They allow traders to leverage or hedge indefinitely, popular applications of this include Ethereum or Bitcoin.


When a scammer pretends to be a trusted institution or person to trick people into revealing sensitive information such as Social Security numbers, passwords, banking details, etc., often through a malware link disguised as legitimate.

Phone Phishing

Phone phishing, also known as a telephone scam or vishing (voice phishing), refers to the practice of using fraudulent and malicious phone calls to extort money or sensitive information from victims.

Physical Bitcoins

A physical Bitcoin is a physical token that usually has an intricate design, as well as a public key and private key.


On CoinMarketCap, platform refers to the parent blockchain of tokens. It may also refer to a cryptocurrency exchange on which you may trade cryptocurrencies.

Play-to-Earn (Play2Earn)

The play-to-earn business model supports the notion of an open economy and gives financial rewards to players who bring value to its metaverse.

Play2Earn (Play-to-Earn)

The play-to-earn business model supports the notion of an open economy and gives financial rewards to players who bring value to its metaverse.

Player Payout

Player payouts is a new way of automatically paying online gaming participants immediately after the tournament ends.

Plutus (Cardano)

The scripting language used on Cardano blockchain for smart contract development.

Politeia (Decred)

A decentralized governance platform that allows Decred stakeholders to submit, track and discuss proposals for suggestion and implementation of new ideas.

Ponzi Scheme

A fraudulent investment involving the payment of purported returns to existing investors from funds contributed by new investors.


A collection of cryptocurrencies or crypto assets held by an investment company, hedge fund, financial institution or individual.

Portfolio Tracking

The act of tracking the movement and performance of assets of your financial holdings is termed portfolio tracking. This monitoring activity can cover stocks, commodities, mutual funds, ETFs, cryptocurrencies and NFTs

Position Size

Position size is a vital part of a trading strategy, since it is directly related to one’s potential profit or loss. Sizing a position also plays an important role in risk management as knowing when to execute larger or smaller trades, and when to increase or reduce the size of a position impacts profitability.


The retroactive creation of new coins following a cryptocurrency’s launch, before public mining is possible.


Pre-IDO refers to token offerings before the actual initial DEX offering (IDO) takes place.


When some or all of a coin’s initial supply is generated during or before the public launch.


The sale of a cryptocurrency, ahead of it going public, to specific investors.

Prediction Market

Prediction Markets are exchange-traded markets where the future outcomes of events are traded. It indicates the confidence of the crowd in a specific future event.

Price Impact

The difference between market price and estimated price due to trade size.

Private Blockchain

A private blockchain is a type of blockchain in which only a single organization has authority over the network.

Private Key/Secret Key

A piece of code generated in asymmetric-key encryption process, paired with a public key, to be used in decrypting information hashed with the public key.

Procedural Programming

Procedural programming refers to a series of instructions that inform a computer what it should do step-by-step to achieve the task.

Profit and Loss (P&L) Statement

A profit and loss (P&L) statement is a financial document that gives that sum up the earnings, costs, and expenditures incurred during a specified period.


Programmability implies that something is capable of following instructions.

Programmable Privacy

Programmable privacy redefines data protection in decentralized applications (dApps), offering a flexible concept that empowers users and developers to personalize privacy settings.

Proof Market

A proof market is a decentralized marketplace where users can buy and sell cryptographic proofs to verify ownership, the validity of a particular transaction and the authenticity of a piece of information or computation results.

Proof of Attendance Protocol

Proof of Attendance Protocol (POAP) refers to a business offering to use the ERC-721 NFT protocol on Ethereum to ascribe individuals a unique, non-fungible blockchain-based identifier that only the person can access

Proof of Reserves (PoR)

Proof of Reserves (PoR) is a method of using cryptographic verification to demonstrate possession of digital assets.

Proof of Stake Authority (PoSA)

Proof of Stake Authority is an innovative consensus algorithm that represents a hybrid of Proof-of-Stake and Proof-of-Authority.

Proof-of-Authority (PoA)

A blockchain consensus mechanism that delivers comparatively fast transactions using identity as a stake.


Proof-of-burn is an attempt at creating a system that can prevent fraudulent transactions on a blockchain and can also improve the overall efficiency and functioning of the blockchain.

Proof-of-Burn (PoB)

A blockchain consensus mechanism aiming to bootstrap one blockchain to another with increased energy efficiency, by verifying that a cost was incurred in “burning” a coin by sending it to an unspendable address.

Proof-of-Developer (PoD)

Any verification that provides evidence of a real, living software developer who created a cryptocurrency, in order to prevent an anonymous developer from making away with any raised funds without delivering a working model.


Proof-of-donation refers to the integration of charitable donations into the functionality of a blockchain.

Proof-of-History (PoH)

Proof of History (PoH) nodes have internal clocks that validate events and time. The incoming events are hashed using a verifiable delay function, also known as VDF, that increases the speed and scalability of a blockchain.

Proof-of-Immutability (PoIM)

Proof-of-Immutability (PoIM) is a novel blockchain architecture designed to protect data privacy in a distributed network. PoIM enables the blockchain to persist data in a decentralized and provably immutable manner, without having to distribute the data among nodes.


Proof-of-replication (PoRep) is the way that a storage miner proves to the network that they are storing an entirely unique copy of a piece of data.


In simplest terms, PoSt means that someone can now guarantee that they are spending a certain amount of space for storage. 

Proof-of-Stake (PoS)

A blockchain consensus mechanism in addition to Proof-of-Work that maintains the integrity of blockchain.

Proof-of-Time (PoT)

Proof-of-Time (PoT) is a decentralized, scalable, verifiably secure, and environmentally-friendly consensus algorithm that checks event data by choosing validators based on their ranking scores and a fixed stake.


Proof-of-validation (PoV) is a unique proof-of-stake (PoS) consensus mechanism that works to achieve consensus through staked validator nodes.

Proof-of-Work (PoW)

A blockchain consensus mechanism involving solving of computationally intensive puzzles to validate transactions and create new blocks. *see Proof-of-Stake (PoS).


The set of rules that define interactions on a network, usually involving consensus, transaction validation, and network participation on a blockchain.

Protocol Layer

A protocol layer of the blockchain is defined as the rules and processes that govern how the network will operate. This is where we can find the different algorithms that determine how consensus is achieved and who gets to create new blocks.


Writing under a false name, such as “Satoshi Nakamoto.”

Public Address

A public address is the cryptographic hash of a public key, allowing the user to use it as an address to request for payment.

Public Blockchain

A blockchain that can be accessed by anyone.

Public Key

A public key refers to a series of alphanumeric characters used to encrypt plain text messages into ciphertext.

Public Sale

A public sale is the final stage of an ICO in which a company offers its token to the public at a significant discount before the token is listed on cryptocurrency exchanges.

Public-Key Cryptography

Public-key cryptography is a collection of algorithms-based cryptographic procedures that are used to jumble secret data and make it look randomized.

Public-Key Infrastructure

A public key infrastructure (PKI) is a collection of roles, rules, hardware, software, and processes for creating, managing, distributing, using, storing, and revoking digital certificates, as well as managing public-key encryption.

Pump and Dump (P&D) Scheme

A form of fraud involving the artificial inflation of the price of a cryptocurrency with false and misleading positive statements.

Pure Proof of Stake (PPoS)

Pure Proof of Stake (PPoS) is Algorand’s consensus mechanism that allows random selection of validators based on the consistency of their stakes.

Put Option

A put option contract offers an owner the opportunity, but not the compulsion, to buy an underlying security at a certain price within a given time frame.

Pyramid Scheme

A pyramid scheme is a scam with a hierarchical top-down structure.

Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)

Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a type of technology that uses radio waves to passively identify a tagged item or individual.


Rage-quit is the process where a member of a DAO exits part or all of their stake, leaves with a proportional share of the assets in the DAO’s treasury, and quits their participation.

Raiden Network

An off-chain scaling solution aiming to enable near-instant, low-fee and scalable payments on the Ethereum blockchain, similar to Bitcoin's proposed Lightning Network.


The relative position of a cryptocurrency by market capitalization.


Ransomware is a type of malware used by hackers to steal or encrypt their victims’ files to extort them for a ransom in exchange for file decryption or restoration.

Real World Assets (RWAs)

Real World Assets are off-chain assets, which are tokenized and brought on-chain for use in DeFi. Tokenization involves converting an asset's value into a digital token for representation and transactions on the blockchain.


Rebalancing is the process of realigning the weightage of a portfolio of assets, that involves buying or selling assets periodically to maintain a targeted level of asset allocation and risk.


A token designed so that the circulating supply adjusts automatically according to price fluctuations.

Recovery Seed

A recovery seed is a cryptographically derived security code composed of a list of random words, typically ranging between 12 and 14.


Recursion refers to when a function calls on itself directly or indirectly in a circular loop(s).


The term refers to something that is in excess of that required for normal operation.

Regenerative Economy

A regenerative economy is a circular economic system that benefits the environment and society as a whole.

Regenerative Finance (ReFi)

Regenerative Finance can be defined as a system that regenerates its resource capacity over time.


Regen, like degen, is a term used to describe a crypto user who jumps into ReFi communities or invests in tokens that use blockchain technology to advance positive environmental impact.

Regional/Local/Community Currencies

A local currency is one that is spent in a certain geographical location. A regional currency refers to a local currency utilized in a larger area, and a community currency is often used within a specific community as a means of exchange.


Regulation is when something is controlled by a specific set of rules.

Regulatory Compliance

Regulatory compliance is a set of mandates that every company or industry is required to follow to track accountability at work.


Rehypothecation is the practice where banks, and even the brokers themselves, use assets that have been posted as collateral by their clients for their own purposes.


Rehypothecation is a process where brokers use the assets collateralized by clients for their own benefit.


A shorthand slang for “wrecked,” describing a bad loss in a trade.

Relative Strength Index (RSI)

A form of technical analysis that serves as a momentum oscillator, measuring the speed and change of price movements.

Relay Chain

The Relay Chain is the central chain that is used by the Polkadot network.

Relay Nodes

Relay nodes help block-producing nodes communicate by guaranteeing that the authenticity of the core nodes and the blockchain is preserved, even if one or more relays are hacked.

Renewable Energy

Renewable energy is derived from solar, wind, and other ‘indefinite’ resources or operations that are renewed on a regular basis.

Repair Miners

Repair miners are a proposed type of mining node within the Filecoin network.

Replay Attack

Replay attacks are network security attacks where the comms between a sender and receiver is intercepted.

Replicated Ledger

A copy of a distributed ledger in a network that is distributed to all participants in a cryptocurrency network.

Replicated Security (RS)

Replicated Security (RS) is a new technology that lets a Cosmos blockchain share its economic security with another using the Inter-Blockchain Communication protocol (IBC).

Resistance (Line/Level)

The highest price level of an asset during a specific period.


Restaking is a mechanism that allows validators on proof-of-stake (PoS) blockchain networks to redeploy their staked cryptocurrency across other PoS-based chains.


A retargeting algorithm, also referred to as a difficulty adjustment algorithm, is used on proof-of-work blockchains, such as Bitcoin. 

Revenue Participation Tokens

Revenue participation tokens are a two token system that uses one participation token and one payout token.

Reverse ICO

In a reverse ICO, an already-established company raises funds by selling tokens to shift its structure to decentralization.

Reverse Indicator

A person whom you may use as an indicator of how not to place buy or sell orders because they are always wrong at predicting price movements of cryptocurrencies.

Ring CT (Confidential Transactions)

RingCT is how transaction amounts are hidden in Monero.

Ring Miners

Ring miners are network participants in the Loopring protocol who manage order rings and ensure trades are completed for all parties involved.

Ring Signature

A cryptographic digital signature that obfuscates the identities of two parties within a transaction.


A roadmap is a high-level visual summary that helps map out the vision as well as the direction of a specific product.

Roger Ver

Roger Ver, also known as Bitcoin Jesus, has been a long-term proponent of Bitcoin and Bitcoin Cash.


Short for “Return on Investment,” the ratio between the net profit and cost of investing.

Roth IRA

Roth IRAs are generally the best investment option when you think your taxes will be higher in retirement than they are now.

Rough Consensus

Rough consensus, in its bare essence, refers to a method of decision-making that doesn't necessarily require unanimity.

Ruby (Programming Language)

Ruby is a high-level programming language designed with a focus on simplicity and code readability.

Rug Pull

A rug pull is a type of scam where developers abandon a project and take their investors' money.


Rust is a multi-paradigm programming language, similar to C++.

Ryuk Ransomware

Ryuk ransomware is a ransomware attack first discovered in August 2018.

S&P 500 (Standard and Poor's 500)

The Standard and Poor's 500, also known as S&P 500, is a stock market index that represents a list of 500 public companies located in the U.S and their performance in the market.

Satoshi (SATS)

The smallest unit of bitcoin with a value of 0.00000001 BTC.

Satoshi Nakamoto

The individual or group of individuals that created Bitcoin.

Scaling Problem

The scaling problem is the limitations of a blockchain's transaction throughout and ability to have fast and low cast transactions.

Scaling Solution

A scaling solution is a method of enable a system to expand.


A scheme that is designed to dupe people out of cash or crypto.


Coins that are created as "get rich quick schemes" by their developers are referred to as a scamcoin. 


A scammer is someone that participates in a fraudulent scheme.


A scholarship is a popular practice in the Axie Infinity universe where managers lend their free Axies to new players (scholars) and earn passively from the battle rewards.


A computer script is a list of commands that are executed by a certain program or scripting language.

Scripting Programming Language

A scripting language is a programming language that does not require the compilation step. It uses a high-level construct to carry out one command at a time.


An alternative proof-of-work (PoW) algorithm to SHA-256, used in Bitcoin mining. Scrypt mining relies more heavily on memory than on pure CPU power, aiming to reduce the advantage that ASICs have and hence increasing network participation and energy efficiency.

Second-Layer Solutions

A set of solutions built on top of a public blockchain to extend its scalability and efficiency, especially for micro-transactions or actions. Examples include Plasma, TrueBit, Lightning Network and more.

Secondary Market

A secondary market is a place where investors or traders can buy and sell different kinds of assets or securities that they own, with others.

Secure Asset Fund for Users (SAFU)

SAFU is the acronym for the "Secure Asset Fund for Users," an insurance fund established by Binance for emergency cases.

Secure Element

A secure element is a type of hardware chip that runs a specified number of applications.

Secure Multi-Party Computation (sMPC)

SMPC is a subfield of cryptography that allows parties to compute a function while keeping the inputs private.

Secure Proof of Stake (SPoS)

Secure Proof of Stake (SPoS) is a consensus mechanism used to secure blockchain networks. It is an evolution of the traditional proof-of-stake (PoS) consensus algorithm

Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)

An independent agency of the United States federal government, responsible for enforcing federal securities laws, proposing securities rules, and regulating the securities industry, the nation's stock and options exchanges, and other related activities and organizations.


The term securities refers to a fungible and tradable financial instrument that carries a type of monetary value.

Security Token

A security token is essentially a digital form of traditional securities.

Security Token Offering

A security token offering (STO) is a public offering where tokenized digital securities are sold.

Seed Funding

Seed funding is a type of funding that provides capital to startups in exchange for equity in the company.

Seed Phrase

A single starting point when deriving keys for a deterministic wallet.

Segregated Witness (SegWit)

A Bitcoin Improvement Proposal (BIP) that aimed to fix transaction malleability on Bitcoin.

Selfish Mining

A situation in which a miner mines a new block but does not broadcast this new block to the other miners.

Sell Wall

A situation where a large limit order has been placed to sell when a cryptocurrency reaches a certain value.

Semantic Web

The ambition of the Semantic Web is to enable computers to manipulate information on our behalf.

Series B Funding

A Series B funding round is the second round of funding a business.


Settlement refers to the process in which a user executes limit or market orders on an order-book-based DEX.

Settlement Layer

A settlement layer is a layer that essentially provides an anchor for an entire ecosystem.


A cryptographic hash function that generates a 256-bit signature for a text, used in Bitcoin proof-of-work (PoW).

Shamir’s Secret Sharing

Shamir’s Secret Sharing is a scheme to securely share highly sensitive information such as encryption keys by splitting the information into multiple parts called shares.

Shanghai Upgrade

The Shanghai Upgrade will allow users to unstake and withdraw their ETH from the network.


Essentially, a shard is a portion of a blockchain network that has been split into multiple shards, which has its own data.

Shard Chain

In the world of cryptocurrencies, sharding can reduce the network congestion as well as increase transactions per second through the creation of new chains


Sharding is a scaling approach that enables splitting of blockchain states into partitions containing states and transaction history, so that each shard can be processed in parallel.

Shelley Phase

The second era of Cardano – Shelley Phase is named after Percy Shelley, an English Poet.

Shiba Inu Token (SHIB)

The Shiba Inu token (SHIB), is a decentralized memecoin based on the Ethereum network.

Shielded Address

A shielded address is generated for a shielded transaction, where a payment is made using the blockchain network by keeping the related information private.

Shielded Transaction

A shielded transaction is essentially a transaction that is between two shielded addresses.


The act of enthusiastically promoting a cryptocurrency or ICO project.


A coin with no obvious potential value or usage.

SHO (Strong Holder Offering)

A strong holder offering (SHO) is a fundraising mechanism where eligible investors are chosen based on their on-chain activities and other proprietary data sets.


A trading technique in which a trader borrows an asset in order to sell it, with the expectation that the price will continue to decline. In the event that the price does decline, the short seller will then buy the asset at this lower price in order to return it to the lender of the asset, making the difference in profit.

Short Squeeze

A short squeeze is an unusual market condition that causes the price of a coin to rise quickly, encouraging traders (who are betting against the price of the token) to buy it to avoid losses.

Side Channel Attack

A side channel attack is a hacking method that exploits a computer’s inherent “tells" that unintentionally convey information.


A sidechain is a separate blockchain, tied to its parent blockchain via a two-way peg.


Signals are a call to action to either buy or sell an asset.

Silk Road

An online black market that existed on the dark web, now shut down by the FBI.


A type of scam that exploits two-factor authentication measures.

Simple Agreement for Future Token (SAFT)

A Simple Agreement for Future Token (SAFT) is a contractual agreement at the time of launch of a token creating ownership rights for token investors at a future date. It is treated by market participants as financial security and hence is regulated by the relevant government institutions.

Simple Ledger Protocol (SLP)

Simple Ledger Protocol (SLP) is a token system that works on top of Bitcoin Cash. It allows users to create their own tokens to represent anything they can dream of.

Simplified Payment Verification (SPV)

A lightweight client to verify blockchain transactions.


A platform built on Sia blockchain for decentralized content storage.


Slashing is a form of penalty on Proof of Stake (PoS) networks implemented to ensure accountability.


Slippage happens when traders have to settle for a different price than what they initially requested due to a price movement.

Slot (Cardano)

The smallest time period in the Cardano blockchain.

Smart Contract

A smart contract is a computer protocol intended to facilitate, verify or enforce a contract on the blockchain without third parties.

Smart Contract Audit

A smart contract audit is a security check done by cybersecurity professionals meant to ensure that the on-chain code behind a smart contract is devoid of bugs or security vulnerabilities.

Smart Home

A smart home is a technology that allows to manage and automate household systems, such as lights, doors, thermostats, security alarms, and other connected equipment from a distance.

Smart Money

Smart money refers to the funds invested by individuals or entities with extensive financial experience, knowledge, and a keen eye for lucrative opportunities. T

Smart Token

Smart tokens are simply regular tokens that not only transmit value they contain but also all the information needed to execute a transaction simultaneously.

Smart Treasury (Balancer)

Smart treasury is a mechanism for automatic buyback of project tokens in the DeFi industry.


A snapshot in the blockchain world is the act of documenting the status of a blockchain at a specific block height.

Social Engineering

Social engineering is the use of deception to manipulate people into performing an action or giving away their secret information.

Soft Cap

The minimum amount that an initial coin offering (ICO) wants to raise.

Soft Fork (Blockchain)

A protocol upgrade where only previously valid transactions are made invalid, with most soft forks requiring miners to upgrade their mining software.

Soft Peg

In finance, a soft peg is a method of keeping the value of a currency within a certain range against a reserve currency by using an exchange rate regime.

Software Library

A software library is a collection of code that can be referenced while developing other executable programs.

Software Stack

Software stack refers to a set of software products or components that work together to provide a particular function.

Software Wallet

A software wallet, also known as a wallet app, is an application that allows users to HODL, send, and receive cryptocurrencies.

Solana Virtual Machine (SVM)

The Solana Virtual Machine, or SVM, is the system powering Solana's ability to handle thousands of transactions per second.


The programming language used by Ethereum for developing smart contracts.

Source Code

A collection of lines or computer-executable commands written in a high-level language is called a source code.


A special purpose acquisition company (SPAC) is formed by investors in order to publicly list an organization without going through the troubles that come with the traditional IPO process.

Spear Phishing

Spear phishing is a personalized, targeted cyber attack that uses your interest to trick you into clicking a malicious link in an email.

Speculative Investment

Speculative investment is an investment where the investor expects a high return with a significant risk of loss.

Spoon (Blockchain)

A hard spoon is a meta-protocol that exists on top of a blockchain.


A contract or transaction buying or selling a cryptocurrency for immediate settlement, or payment and delivery, of the cryptocurrency on the market.

Spot Market

A public market in which cryptocurrencies are traded for immediate settlement. It contrasts with a futures market, in which settlement is due at a later date.

Spot Trading

Spot trading involves the immediate exchange of a financial instrument at the current price.


Spyware is a malware that records all of the activities on an electronic device.


A cryptocurrency with extremely low volatility, sometimes used as a means of portfolio diversification. Examples include gold-backed cryptocurrency or fiat-pegged cryptocurrency.

Stacking Sats

"Stacking sats" refers to the practice of accumulating small amounts of Bitcoin, typically expressed in "satoshis," the smallest unit of a Bitcoin.


Stagflation is a period during which an economy sees simultaneous stagnant growth and rising inflation (in other words, growth and inflation move in opposite directions).


Staking is a form of participation in a proof-of-stake (PoS) system to put your tokens in to serve as a validator to the blockchain and receive rewards.

Staking Pool

Staking Pools allows users to combine their resources in order to increase their chances of earning rewards. This mechanism offers more staking power to the network to verify and validate new blocks.

Stale Block

A block which was successfully mined but not included on the current longest blockchain, usually because another block at the same height was added to the chain first.

State Channel

A second-layer scaling solution that reduces the total on-chain transactions necessary, moving the transactions off-chain and letting participants sign to the main chain after multiple off-chain transactions.

Stochastic Oscillator

A stochastic oscillator is a popular technical indicator used for identifying overbought and oversold stock/asset/cryptocurrency levels that rely on an asset's price history, as it tend to fluctuate within a specific price range..

Stock-to-Flow Ratio

The stock-to-flow ratio is a metric used to measure the scarcity of a commodity, particularly precious metals and cryptocurrencies.

Stop-Loss Order

A stop-loss order in trading allows investors to determine the lowest price at which they are willing to sell an asset and trigger an automatic sell order when and if this price is reached.

Storage (Decentralized)

Decentralized storage refers to the concept of storing files online by splitting them into encrypted fragments and delegating these fragments to multiple nodes on a distributed network, e.g. a blockchain.

Storage Miners

Storage miners are cryptocurrency miners who rely on offering sufficient storage space for nodes to reach consensus and validate transactions.

Storage Node

Storage nodes are the principal part of the Storj decentralized cloud storage network.

Store of Value

A store of value is an asset, commodity or currency that can be saved, retrieved as well as exchanged in the future without it losing any value.


A stroop is the smallest unit of Lumen (XLM).

Subgraph Manifest

A component of Subgraph that entails information pertaining to subgraph’s data sources, templates, and more.


A subnet is a smaller network within a larger network. Think of all the computers, printers and other devices that make up a network as pieces of a huge jigsaw puzzle. A subnet is like a chunk of that jigsaw; it collects nodes that all have something in common.


Substrate is a web app development framework developed by Parity Technologies.

Succinct Proofs of Random Access (SPoRA)

Succinct Proofs of Random Access (SPoRA) is a consensus mechanism used to confirm transactions and validate blocks on the Arweave decentralized network.


A supercomputer is a superior version of a general-purpose computer, which has a significantly increased capacity and processing power.


In economics, a "supercycle" describes an extended period characterized by the outsized growth of a particular asset or sector.

Supply and Demand

Supply and demand are the levels in an economy that determine the market's willingness to buy or sell assets or services, respectively.

Supply Chain

A supply chain is the collection of steps that a product or service needs to go through before reaching the final customer.

Supply Chain Attack

A supply chain attack is a tactic used by hackers to compromise third-party suppliers to major corporations, governments and organizations to gain valuable information.

Support Level

A support level in crypto is when the price of a crypto asset stops depreciating because of increased supply from buyers that wish to buy at a certain price.

Surge (Ethereum)

The Ethereum Surge is a development stage of the Ethereum network. It includes a set of upgrades, most notably sharding.


A swarm is a group of peers that are sharing the same torrent.

Swing Failure Pattern (SFP)

A swing failure pattern (SFP) is a trend reversal indicator that can be used to discover a weakness in the current trend and identify early reversal signs.

Swing Trading

Swing trading is a market trading technique that aims to profit from short to medium-term price changes in stocks, commodities, and/or currencies over a period of days or weeks.

Sybil Attack

Sybil attacks undermine an online network by creating many IDs, accounts or nodes to upset the balance of power.


The ticker of a cryptocurrency; for example, Bitcoin's symbol is BTC.

Symmetric Key Cryptography

Symmetric key cryptography is a type of cryptography that uses a single key to both encrypt and decrypt data.

Synthetic Asset

Synthetic assets, sometimes referred to as synths, are a combination of cryptocurrencies and traditional derivative assets. In other words, synths are tokenized derivatives.

T-Address (Zcash)

T-addresses are one of the two types of addresses available for the privacy-focused cryptocurrency, Zcash, used when transparency is desired.


The percentage of cryptocurrency in an account that can be traced to another account.

Take Profit

A take-profit order is an act of selling cryptocurrency to secure profits. It is usually executed at a predetermined price when the trade is in profit.

Tamper-Proof Ledger

A tamper-proof ledger is essentially any system of records that has the fundamental properties of a blockchain distributed ledger.


The Tangle is a blockchain alternative developed by IOTA, using directed acyclic graphs which only builds in one single direction and in a way that it never repeats, and is quantum-computing resistant.


Taproot is an instantiation of a soft fork for Bitcoin, intended to both improve privacy and improve other aspects tied to more complex transactions.

Tardigrade (Storj)

Tardigrade is the decentralized cloud storage service provided by the Storj platform.

Technical Analysis/Trend Analysis (TA)

An evaluation method involving statistical analyses of market activity, such as price and volume. Charts and other tools are used to identify patterns to underpin and drive investment decisions.

Technical Indicators

A technical indicator is a statistical algorithm or pattern-based indication based on a security's or contract's historical price, volume, and/or open interest.


Tendermint is a consensus mechanism that allows applications to launch across different machines securely and consistently.

Terahashes Per Second

Terahashes per second (Th/s) is equivalent to 1 trillion (1,000,000,000,000) hashes per second, a unit that indicates the power of a computer or mining machine.


An alternative blockchain used by developers for testing.

The Barbell Strategy

A method in which investors put their money in two extremes of high-risk and no-risk assets while ignoring the middle-risk assets.

The Cantillon Effect

Developed by Richard Cantillon, The Cantillon Effect is a change in relative prices resulting from a change in the money supply.


The DAO is the first decentralized autonomous organization, which was created by a group of developers in April 2016.

The Merge (Ethereum 2.0)

The merge is a planned network upgrade that will combine the Ethereum mainnet and the Beacon Chain to transition from the proof-of-work consensus mechanism to the proof-of-stake system.

Think Long Term (TLT)

A mindset where you have a longer-term investment horizon of months to years.

This Is Gentlemen

Originally an error in writing the full “This is it, gentlemen”. It is now used as an introduction for good news.


Throughput is how many actions can be completed in a given time frame.


An abbreviation used to uniquely identify cryptocurrencies. *see Symbol.

Ticker Symbol

The ticker symbol is the unique combination of letters assigned to stocks or cryptocurrencies that makes them distinguishable on exchanges and other trading applications.

Time-Weighted Automated Market Maker (TWAMM)

Time-Weighted Automated Market Maker (TWAMM) aims to help traders execute large orders with minimal slippage and low gas fees without negatively affecting the price.

Time-weighted Average Price (TWAP)

The time-weighted average price (TWAP) is a trading indicator based on weighted average price, which shows the average price of an asset as it rises and falls during a given or specific time period.


A condition for a transaction to only be processed at a certain time or block on the blockchain.


A form of identification for when a certain transaction occurred.


A tipset is a set, rather than a chain, of blocks that make up a blockchain. 


A digital unit designed with utility in mind, providing access and use of a larger crypto economic system.

Token Economy

An economy of goods and services that can run without intermediaries and third parties with the help of the blockchain technology.

Token Generation Event (TGE)

The time at which a token is issued.

Token Issuance

Token issuance is the process of creating new tokens and adding them to the total token supply of a cryptocurrency.

Token Lockup

Token lockup refers to a time period during which cryptocurrency tokens cannot be exchanged or traded.

Token Migration

Token migration refers to the process of moving tokens from one blockchain to another as a result of a change in the blockchain.

Token Sale

A token sale refers to the initial offering of a cryptocurrency token to a private pool of investors before it officially goes on the market.

Token Standard

The most common token standard today is the Ethereum Request for Comment or ERC.

Token Swap

Token swap refers to the direct exchange of a certain amount of one cryptocurrency token for another between users facilitated by a special exchange service. It can also be defined as the migration of a cryptocurrency token built on top of one blockchain platform to a different blockchain.


The process by which real-world assets are turned into something of digital value called a token, often subsequently able to offer ownership of parts of this asset to different owners.

Tokenized Carbon Credits

Tokenized carbon credits represent carbon that has been avoided or removed from the environment. One metric tonne of carbon verifiably avoided or removed translates to one carbon credit.

Tokenized Securities

Tokenized securities are when the ownership of a security is materialized through the issuance of a token.

Tokenized Stocks

Tokenized Stocks are the digital assets that are traded on exchanges using blockchain technology.


Tokenomics is the science of token economy which consists of a set of rules that governs a cryptocurrency's issuance and supply.

TokenSets (Set Protocol)

TokenSets is a Set Protocol-based decentralized platform for crypto portfolio management.

Toll Bridge

A toll bridge is a bridge powered by a smart contract where a monetary value called a toll fee unlocks access to extra functionalities.


Tor is a decentralized network that anonymizes users' web traffic by encrypting it and routing it through a series of relays before it reaches its final destination.

Total Exchange Volume

Total exchange volume is a measure of the total value that has been traded on an exchange(s).

Total Supply

The total amount of coins in existence right now, minus any coins that have been verifiably burned. *see Circulating Supply and Max Supply.

Total Value Locked (TVL)

Тotal value locked represents the number of assets that are currently being staked in a specific protocol.

Trade Volume

The amount of the cryptocurrency that has been traded in the last 24 hours.

Trading Bot

A crypto trading bot is essentially a program that is designed to automate cryptocurrency asset trading on the behalf of the trader.

Trading Tournament

Trading tournaments are unique crypto trading campaigns organized by cryptocurrency exchanges, encouraging users to trade more to win incentives, such as tokens, hardware wallets and more/

Trading Volume

Тrading volume refers to the total number of shares (or tokens/coins) that have been exchanged between buyers and sellers of a given asset during trading hours of a certain day.


TradingView is an online web-based platform that provides investors and traders with a user-friendly interface to analyze financial markets using charts and technical indicators.

Transaction (TX)

The act of exchanging cryptocurrencies on a blockchain.

Transaction Fee

A payment for using the blockchain to transact.

Transaction ID (TXID)

A transaction ID (TXID) is the unique identification number of each blockchain transaction.

Transaction Triggers

Triggers can be set up on a blockchain, which group various transactions together to be executed when the designated conditions are met.

Transactions Per Second (TPS)

Transactions per second (TPS) is a measure of a computer system's (or network's) capacity to perform transactions or calculations in a second.


TRC10 is a technological token standard that does not require the TRON Virtual Machine and is backed by the TRON blockchain network (TVM).

TRC-20 Token

The TRC-20 token standard allows for tokens to be created on the TRON network.

Treasury Bills (T-Bills)

Treasury bills (T-Bills) are short-term U.S. government debt obligations.

Treasury Bond (T-Bond)

The treasury bond is a debt security issued by the United States government that is backed by the "full faith and credit" of the U.S. Treasury Department.


A trojan is a type of malware that is often disguised as legitimate software.


For blockchains using EVM, truffle acts as a development environment and a testing framework, a widely used tool for blockchain application development.


A trust is a fiduciary relationship in which one party, known as a trustor, gives another party, the trustee, the right to hold title to property or assets for the benefit of a third party, the beneficiary.

Trust Wallet

Trust Wallet is a crypto wallet software that gives its users complete ownership of their crypto funds.


An environment where there is no centralized authority.


A mixing service that helps make cryptocurrency funds and transactions more anonymous.

Turing Completeness

Turing completeness refers to the capability of a system or programming language to solve any problem that can be solved by a machine created by mathematician Alan Turing.


A system that in principle could be able to solve any computation problem.

Two-Factor Authentication (2FA)

Two-factor authentication (2FA) is method of access that requires two different forms of authentication.

Type Checking

A process in programming languages to verify whether or not each operation in the program is in accordance with the type declaration rules of the language.

TypeScript Programming Language

TypeScript programming language is a more advanced version of JavaScript that includes more functionality.


Typosquatting is a deceptive practice used by scammers to trick people into entering a counterfeit website and compromising their private information.


Unbanked refers to those that are either unable to access banking services, or choose not to.

Uncle Block (Ommer Block)

Uncle Block (Ommer Block) refers to the discarded block in the phenomenon when two blocks are simultaneously created, resulting in one block being omitted from the blockchain.


A state in which a transaction has not been appended to the blockchain.

UNI Token

A native governance token of Uniswap, the largest decentralized exchange at the time of writing.

Unit of Account

A unit of account is a standardized unit of measurement used in accounting to record and track financial transactions.

United States House Committee on Financial Services

The U.S. House Committee on Financial Services is a committee of the United States House of Representatives that oversees all components of the US’s financial and housing services.

Unpermissioned Ledger

A public ledger that is open to anyone, without being controlled by a single owner.

Unrealized Profit & Loss

Unrealized profit and loss occur when you have a position open in a security that has appreciated or depreciated in value.


Something that isn’t controlled by a centralized authority or a governing intuition.

Unspent Transaction Output (UTXO)

A transaction that is left unspent after being completed, similar to leftover change after making a purchase.

Unstoppable Domains

Unstoppable Domains is the name of a San-Francisco based company that provides blockchain-based domain names to users.

US Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC)

The US Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) is a financial intelligence and enforcement agency of the US Treasury Department.

Use Case

A use case is a description of the interactions between an actor (human or system) and a system that leads to an event.

User Interface

The user interface is the user’s interaction with a website or application using a digital device.

UTC Time

Coordinated Universal Time.

Utility Mining

Utility mining is a mechanism that allows for the distribution of tokens based on user activity and active participation. This allows crypto projects to distribute flexible yields attached to any specified on-chain interaction.

Utility Token

Tokens that are designed specifically to be able to help people use something.


A participant on a proof-of-stake (PoS) blockchain, involved in validating blocks for rewards.

Vanity Address

A cryptocurrency public address with custom letters and numbers, usually picked by its owner.


A cryptocurrency project that is never actually developed.

Venture Capital

A form of private equity provided to fund small, early-stage firms considered to have high growth potential.

Verification Code

A verification code is a security protection method that is used to avoid internet bots from abusing or even spamming various online services. 

Vesting Period

The act of restricting the sale of a token for a particular period of time.

Virgin Bitcoin

A Bitcoin that has never been spent.

Virtual Automated Market Makers (vAMMs)

A virtual Automated Market Maker (vAMM) is a system that provides synthetic (or virtual) liquidity, allowing traders to buy and sell derivatives entirely on the blockchain.

Virtual Commodity Association (VCA)

The virtual commodity association is a non-profit organization of cryptocurrency exchanges and custodians with an aim to build a self-regulatory organization (SRO) for the U.S. virtual currency industry.

Virtual Private Network (VPN)

A virtual private network (VPN) is a technology that creates a safe and encrypted network from a public internet connection – giving you anonymity and privacy.

Virtual Reality (VR)

Virtual reality (VR) technology is used to simulate an immersive artificial world that can mimic or transcend reality. V


Computers are usually infected with a virus when a user unknowingly installs it via a downloaded file.

Vitalik Buterin

Vitalik Buterin is one of the creators of Ethereum, the second-largest cryptocurrency after Bitcoin.


A statistical measure of dispersion of returns, measured by using the standard deviation or variance between returns from that same security or market index.


How much cryptocurrency has been traded over a set period, such as the past 24 hours.


WAGMI stands for "We're All Gonna Make It." It's a phrase about positivity, optimism, and a collective belief in success.


A place where cryptocurrency users can store, send and receive digital assets.

Wallstreetbets (WSB)

Wallstreetbets, otherwise known as /r/wallstreetbets or WSB, is a subreddit for participants to discuss stock and options trading. 

WannaCry Ransomware

WannaCry is a piece of ransomware that can infect and spread rapidly through a number of computer networks. 

Wasabi Wallet

Wasabi is an open-source and privacy-focused wallet for Bitcoin, available for Windows, Linus and macOS.

Wash Trade

A form of market manipulation in which investors create artificial activity in the marketplace by simultaneously selling and buying the same cryptocurrencies.

Watchdog Organization

Non-profit organizations that critically monitor the activities of governments or other entities on behalf of the public.

Watcher (OMG Foundation)

A Watcher on OMG Foundation is a computer that observes the child chain and block producer and makes sure network transactions are correctly confirmed.


A watchlist is a feature of the website where users can create their own lists of cryptocurrencies to follow.

Weak Hands

An investor prone to panic selling at the first sign of a price decline.

Web 1.0

Web 1.0 is a term that is often used to describe the early version of the internet.

Web 2.0

Web 2.0 describes the current state of the web, which supports more user-generated content and stability for front-end users than its predecessor, Web 1.0

Web 3.0

Web 3.0 is the coming generation of the internet.

Web3 Foundation

The Web3 Foundation was created to foster new technologies and applications in the field of decentralized web software protocols.


WebSocket enables two-way communication between a client (e.g., a web browser) and a server (which can be either an HTTP server or another WebSocket server).


The smallest fraction of an Ether, with each Ether to 1000000000000000000 Wei.


A term used to describe investors who have uncommonly large amounts of crypto, especially those with enough funds to manipulate the market.

What Is the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN)?

The Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN) is a U.S. bureau that analyzes financial transactions to prevent financial crimes.

When Lambo

A phrase referring to when cryptocurrency holders will become rich enough to afford the purchase of a Lamborghini.

When Moon

A phrase used to ask when the price of cryptocurrencies will explode.

White Hat Computer Hacker

White hat hackers use their skills to improve security by exposing vulnerabilities before malicious hackers (known as black hat hackers) can detect and exploit them.

White Label

White Labeling allows a company to customize an existing product framework in order to rebrand and resell this product as their own.

White Label Staking

In white-label staking, the crypto holders get their validator node explicitly created for them. This is then managed entirely on their behalf by a third-party operator.

White Swan Event

A white swan is an easily predictable event that is anticipated based on current information and forecasting.


A list of interested participants in an initial coin offering, who registered their intent to take part or purchase in a sale.


A document released by a crypto project that gives investors technical information about its concept, and a roadmap for how it plans to grow and succeed.

Winding Down

Winding down is the process of unwrapping tokens back to their original form in DeFi.

Winding Up

In decentralized finance (DeFi), winding up essentially means wrapping crypto tokens through various projects in order to find the best yield. 

Zero Confirmation Transaction

Alternative phrasing for an unconfirmed transaction.

Zero Confirmation/Unconfirmed Transaction

A zero confirmation or unconfirmed transaction is defined as an exchange that has not yet been recorded or verified on the blockchain

Zero Knowledge Proof

Proving certain information or data is true without revealing it.

Zero Knowledge Rollup

A zero knowledge rollup is a type of layer 2 scaling solution that relies on zero knowledge cryptography

Zero Knowledge Rollups

A zero-knowledge rollup is a Layer 2 blockchain solution that performs computations and storage off-chain while funds are held in a smart contract.

Zero-Knowledge Proof

In cryptography, a zero-knowledge proof enables one party to provide evidence that a transaction or event happened without revealing private details of that transaction or event.


A proof that allows one party to prove it owns certain information without revealing it.


zkApps leverage the zero-knowledge proofs (ZKPs), particularly zk-SNARKs and zk-STARKs, to unlock a realm of possibilities that surpass traditional blockchain applications.


zkOracles utilize Zero Knowledge Proofs (ZKPs) as a trustless medium through which data can pass freely whilst retaining a robust standard of security, privacy and cost-efficiency.


zkSharding is a re-introduced concept of Ethereum’s sharded execution layer which scales blockchains with parallelized execution within shards secured via zkEVM proofs.


A zParachain is an approach to bridging where a dedicated blockchain in the broader Polkadot ecosystem is used specifically to connect to a network that’s outside the Polkadot ecosystem.