Equity is the funds that would be returned to a company's shareholders if all of the company's assets were dissolved and all debts were paid off in the event of liquidation.

What Is Equity?

In the world of finance, equity refers to the worth of a company that can be attributed to its shareholders. On a firm's balance sheet, equity reflects the shareholders' ownership of the company. It is calculated by subtracting a company's total assets from its total liabilities.

Equity = Total Assets − Total Liabilities

There are two forms of equity; book value & market value.
Equity is usually stated in a financial statement under its market value, which might be much greater or lower than the book value. The rationale for this distinction is that accounting statements are backward-looking whereas financial analysts estimate what they expect financial growth will be in the future. 
The market value of a company's stock is used to determine if it is publicly tradable. It's just the most recent share price compounded by the total number of outstanding shares. When a firm is privately held, determining its market value is significantly more difficult. If a company has to be formally evaluated, it employs specialists to do a detailed examination, such as investment bankers, accounting companies, or valuation firms.
In principle, a company's book value of equity is determined by the industry in which it works and how it maintains its assets. Since they can generate comparatively high profits from their assets, companies that are projected to expand and earn larger profits in the future often have a book value that is lower than their market value, i.e. the worth of the business established by the stock market.
Companies that are less oriented towards growth and more towards value have a higher book value of equity than their market value. In reality, this indicates that the market isn't optimistic about the company's potential to create profits in the future, but value investors feel that the market is completely mistaken.

Investing in a company that offers its equity shares is extremely beneficial in the following ways:

  • In a corporation structure, the owners are typically limited in their liabilities. In most cases, the equity share is paid in full. Shareholders may lose some of their money, but not all of it. They are also not responsible for the corporation's inability to satisfy its obligations.
  • Equity shares have a higher profit potential than any other financial product. Even if the current dividend yield is not as high, the potential for capital gain is substantial. Over time, the overall yield or yields to maturity may become significant.
  • The owner of shares has the license to sell their shares to another person. The buyer should make certain that the issuing corporation records the transfer of ownership so that the new owner receives dividends, voting rights, and other benefits.
  • Investors in equity shares also benefit from tax advantages. The higher yield on stock shares is due to a rise in principle or capital gains, which in most countries are taxed at a lower rate than other incomes.
In the world of crypto, investors can choose to acquire tokens/coins of a cryptocurrency project and stake them to receive a recurring stream of revenue. The quantity of rewards depends on the total equity or tokens they own of the cryptocurrency.