The Modular DePIN Infrastructure: A Comprehensive Overview
CMC Research

The Modular DePIN Infrastructure: A Comprehensive Overview

Created 3mo ago, last updated 3mo ago

CoinMarketCap and IoTeX dive into Decentralized Physical Infrastructure Networks (DePIN) and the technology stack of modular layers that compose the DePIN ecosystem.

The Modular DePIN Infrastructure: A Comprehensive Overview

Table of Contents


In today's rapidly advancing technological landscape, a groundbreaking concept is taking shape, blending blockchain's robustness with real-world sensors, connectivity, computing power, and AI. Termed as Decentralized Physical Infrastructure Networks, or DePINs, this approach seeks to revolutionize conventional infrastructure frameworks. By leveraging crypto-economic rewards, DePINs encourage community-driven growth, fundamentally altering our approach to constructing and understanding our environment.
IoTeX is steadfast in its focus as a DePIN-specific L1 with modular blockchain infrastructure on bridging the real world with Web3, a vision embodied by DePIN. Central to this ecosystem is IoTeX's off-chain compute protocol, W3bstream, which is crucial in accelerating the market readiness of new DePIN initiatives.
For a more detailed and transparent insight into the DePIN ecosystem, DePINscan provides a live explorer that displays the global deployment of devices within DePIN crypto projects, offering a real-time view of the network's expansion and activities.

Cloud-Centric IoT Reference Architectures

In the context of the current landscape, where Cloud Service Providers (CSPs) like Microsoft Azure, Google Cloud, and Amazon Web Services (AWS) have developed IoT reference architectures for different industries and applications, the concept of modular Decentralized Physical Infrastructure Networks (DePINs) becomes particularly relevant and transformative. These CSPs' architectures typically comprise key components and services designed for specific sector needs.

Azure IoT Reference Architecture

  • Smart Devices: A wide range of smart devices (big or small) can be connected to the cloud by installing device SDKs, operating systems and device credentials provided by cloud service providers.
  • Connectivity Management Services: The connectivity management services handle complexity of various communication protocols and ensure secure two-way communication between smart devices and cloud services.
  • Identity and Access Management Services: The identity management services deal with the identity lifecycle (i.e., creation, onboarding, monitoring, reporting, maintenance and offboarding) and relationship of smart devices and their owners.
  • Device Management Services: The device management services manage lifecycle (i.e., provisioning, deployment, maintenance and decommissioning) of smart devices.
  • Data Storage Services: The data storage services handle the short- and long-term storage of data collected from smart devices.
  • Data Processing Services: The data processing services process data collected from smart devices based on pre-configured rules and gain insights about the physical world.

Modular DePINs, integrating the decentralized and blockchain-driven elements mentioned earlier, can work seamlessly with these established IoT architectures. They offer a level of flexibility, security, and decentralization not typically found in traditional cloud-based models. In this evolving ecosystem, modular DePINs can disrupt and enhance these reference architectures by providing a more adaptable, secure, and user-centric approach.

The integration of real-world sensors, AI, and blockchain technology within DePINs empowers users and developers to build and manage infrastructure in a more open, efficient, and resilient manner, potentially transforming the way CSPs and industries approach IoT solutions and infrastructure development for future generations.

A Modular DePIN Infrastructures

When constructing a DePIN application, it involves a sophisticated technology stack composed of various composable and modular layers, as depicted in the figure below. The overarching goal of this design is to lower the barriers to development, thereby facilitating innovation that merges the real world with blockchain technology.

The Modular DePIN Infrastructure Overview

This layered architecture in DePIN applications is specifically structured to streamline the development process. By offering modular components, each layer can be independently developed, maintained, or replaced, making the system highly adaptable and easier for developers to work with. This modularity reduces complexity and allows developers to focus on specific aspects without needing to understand the entire stack in detail.

Furthermore, the integration of real-world sensor data with blockchain technology in DePIN applications opens up a new realm of possibilities. It enables the creation of decentralized solutions that are not only secure and transparent but also intimately connected with the physical world. This connection fosters innovations that can bridge the digital and physical domains more seamlessly, leading to applications that can revolutionize industries such as supply chain management, environmental monitoring, and smart cities.

Hardware Abstraction Layer


The Hardware Layer (HL) serves as the foundational tier, designed to integrate a diverse array of smart devices into the DePIN network. This layer addresses the challenge of device heterogeneity, providing a unified interface for seamless connectivity.

Key Players


  • Examples: ESP32, Arduino, STM32, Nordic
  • Microcontrollers are compact, integrated circuits equipped with a processor, memory, and input/output interfaces, designed for specific control tasks in embedded systems like home appliances and electronics.

Single Board Computers

  • Examples: Raspberry Pi, Odroid, Rock Pi
  • Single Board Computers are compact, fully-functional computers integrated onto a single circuit board, often used for education, prototyping, and hobbyist projects.

Mobile devices

  • Examples: Android, iOS
  • Mobile devices are portable, handheld electronic devices with operating systems, designed for a wide range of functionalities including communication, entertainment, and productivity.


  • Examples: IoTeX's DeviceConnect
  • SDKs are software development kits that provide a set of tools, libraries, relevant documentation, code samples, processes, and guides that allow developers to create software applications on specific platforms

Hardware Manufacturers

  • Examples: Seeed Studio, RAKwireless
  • Hardware manufacturers are companies that specialize in producing physical components and devices for various technological applications, from consumer electronics to industrial machinery.

Connectivity Layer


The Connectivity Layer (CL) acts as the bridge between smart devices and the broader network, supporting various communication protocols and ensuring reliable data transmission.

Key Players


  • Examples: Helium Mobile, Karrier One, World Mobile
  • 5G networks offer high-speed data transmission and low latency, making them ideal for applications like augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, and ultra-high-definition video streaming.


  • Examples: Wicrypt, WiFiMap, Metablox
  • WiFi networks provide local wireless connectivity, often used in homes, businesses, and public spaces to offer internet access and interconnect devices within a specific area.


  • Examples: Nodle
  • Bluetooth is a short-range wireless technology often used for connecting peripherals to devices, such as wireless headphones, speakers, and keyboards.

LoRaWAN (Long Range Wide Area Network)

  • Examples: Helium IoT, Drop Wireless
  • LoRaWAN is designed for long-range, low-power communication, making it suitable for IoT and sensor networks that require extended battery life and wide coverage.


  • Example: Streamr
  • P2P, or peer-to-peer, refers to a network structure where individual nodes, or peers, directly connect and share resources with each other without the need for a central coordinating server, enabling decentralized communication and data exchange.

Sequencer Layer


The Sequencer Layer (SL) plays a critical role in organizing and coordinating data flow, ensuring efficient interaction between the Data Availability Layer (DAL) and the Off-Chain Computing Layer (OCCL).

Key Players

Decentralized Sequencer

  • Examples: Expresso, Metis Sequencer
  • The decentralized Sequencer Layer (SL) sorts data from smart devices, coordinates with the Data Availability Layer (DAL) and Off-Chain Computing Layer (OCCL) for computations, and relays results and validity proofs to the Blockchain Layer (BL).

Data Availability Layer


The Data Availability Layer (DAL), which can be centralized or decentralized, temporarily holds data for a set period in DePIN projects, then either deletes it or moves it to the Long-Term Storage Layer (LTSL), and periodically commits data to the Blockchain Layer (BL) for integrity verification.

Key Players

  • Examples: ETH DA (EIP-4844), Celestia, EigenDA, Near DA, Polygon Avail
  • The Data Availability Layer (DAL) is a centralized or decentralized storage system that temporarily houses data for a predefined period, ensuring accessibility and integrity in DePIN projects.

Long-Term Storage Layer


The Long-Term Storage Layer (LTSL) functions as either a centralized service or a decentralized network, tailored to the specific needs of DePIN projects. It serves as a repository for long-term data retention. Stored data can be accessed from LTSL through storage APIs, adhering to predefined access policies, enabling sharing with third parties or other use cases.

Key Players

File Storage

  • Examples: Filecoin, Arweave, ScPrime, Ceramic
  • File storage resources are crucial for storing and accessing unstructured or semi-structured data like documents, images, and multimedia files, facilitating content sharing, document management, and media distribution within a network.

Off-Chain Computing Layer


The Off-Chain Computing Layer (OCCL) can be either centralized or decentralized, serving as a resource to execute project-specific business logic on data stored in the DAL, producing validity proofs (such as zero-knowledge proofs or TEE-based attestations) to ensure trust and public verification of specified computations.

Key Players

General Purpose

  • Examples: Render, Akash
  • General-purpose computing resources are versatile workhorses that excel at a wide array of computing tasks, including running applications, hosting websites, and managing data.

DePIN Focused Compute

  • Examples: W3bstream, DePHY
  • DePIN-specific proof logic compute refers to a tailored computational process designed for DePIN projects, particularly for verification and validation purposes.

ZKP Compute

  • Examples: Axiom, Risc Zero, HyperOracle
  • ZKP Compute involves the utilization of Zero-Knowledge Proofs for secure and efficient computations.

Blockchain Layer

Core Function

Serving as the backbone of trust, the Blockchain Layer manages identities, transactions, and validates off-chain computations, among other critical functions.

The Blockchain Layer (BL) serves as the trust anchor of a DePIN application with respect to participant identities, transactions, device data and status, etc. Such a layer also deals with other important functionalities, including, but not limited to, verification of off-chain computations, orchestration of machine networks, distribution of token rewards to DePIN miners, and on-chain governance.

Key Players

DePIN-Specific Blockchains

  • Example: IoTeX L1
  • DePIN-specific blockchains are customized for the unique needs of DePIN networks. IoTeX, for instance, specializes in the Internet of Things (IoT) and can be specifically designed to cater to the hardware, connectivity, middleware, blockchain and tokenomics of DePIN projects.

General-Purpose Blockchains

  • Examples: Ethereum, Solana, Polygon
  • General-purpose blockchains like Ethereum, Solana, and Polygon offer the flexibility and security needed for the core DePIN infrastructure. They can handle a wide range of decentralized applications and smart contracts, making them suitable for managing tokens, rewards, and the governance of DePIN.

App-Chain Blockchains

  • Examples: Polkadot, Cosmos, Eclipse
  • App-chain blockchains, as part of multi-chain ecosystems like Polkadot and Cosmos, allow DePIN to create specific blockchains or parachains for specialized purposes. These can be tailored to handle distinct services or data, ensuring efficient operation within the DePIN ecosystem and integration with other blockchain networks.

Identity Layer


The Identity Layer (IL) has the role of overseeing both on-chain and off-chain identities, such as account abstraction (AA) wallets and decentralized identifiers (DIDs), for all entities within DePINs, including smart devices, users, and servers. On-chain identities, like Externally Owned Accounts (EOAs) or AA wallets, enable users to manage DePIN assets, while off-chain identities, such as DIDs or X.509 certificates, facilitate secure interactions between machines.

Key Players


  • Examples: ioID, zkPass
  • The identity layer is responsible for managing secure and decentralized identity solutions, allowing entities within the network to establish and verify their digital identities.

AA Wallet

  • Examples: ioPay
  • An account abstraction (AA) wallet is a specialized wallet in DePINs that allows users to manage and interact with DePINs while abstracting the complexity of blockchain operations.

Governance Layer


The Governance Layer (GL), which could be realized on-chain/off-chain or in a hybrid manner, is responsible for defining and enforcing the policies and procedures for other layers in a DePIN tech stack. In particular, the GL allows token holders to make decisions regarding various aspects (e.g., usage of the project treasure, protocol upgrade, etc.) of a DePIN project, typically through a community-based voting process.

Governance Models

On-Chain Governance

  • Example: Commonwealth, Tally
  • On-Chain Governance refers to the decentralized decision-making process within blockchain networks, allowing token holders to collectively make and implement protocol changes and updates directly on blockchain.

Off-Chain Governance

  • Example: Snapshot
  • Off-Chain Governance involves the external decision-making processes that occur off the blockchain, often through voting or polling mechanisms, to influence protocol changes and community decisions within a blockchain ecosystem.


Understanding the modular structure of DePINs is essential for developers, investors, and enthusiasts looking to navigate and contribute to this burgeoning domain. Each layer, while distinct, collaborates seamlessly to create a robust, efficient, and scalable DePIN infrastructure. As this field evolves, it's crucial to stay abreast of the latest developments, continuously refining and expanding our collective knowledge in the DePIN landscape.

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