is a decentralized, permissionless, open-source layer-1 blockchain
for decentralized applications
(dApps) and one of Ethereum's rivals, claiming greater scalability and low-cost transactions.
Fantom grew in popularity in late 2021/early 2022, as prolific developer Andre Cronje announced a project built initially on the Fantom blockchain, causing a rush of assets into Fantom protocols.
However, the subsequent failure of the project to live up to the hype, coupled with Cronje's decision to leave the industry — and subsequently the current bear market drawdown has hit FTM extra hard. The token is down over 90% since hitting highs in mid-January 2022.
Fantom has been live since December 2019 and attempts to resolve the blockchain trilemma
through its innovative architecture, which combines scalability, security and decentralization.
Its architecture is based on a single consensus
layer integrating several execution chains. This consensus layer – Lachesis – has been developed by the Fantom Foundation as the base layer for its Lachesis Protocol
, Fantom’s version of the Ethereum Virtual Machine
It uses Directed Acyclic Graph
(DAG) technology to improve the slow transaction finality and high transaction fees of traditional Proof-of-Work
blockchains like Ethereum
The first layer on top of Lachesis is an EVM-compatible smart contract platform called Opera
. In contrast to Ethereum, where gas wars
can lead to exorbitant transaction fees or long waiting times for transaction settlement, a smart contract
interaction on Fantom has a transaction finality of one second and costs a fraction of a cent.
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Fantom uses a consensus mechanism
called Asynchronous Byzantine Fault Tolerance
(aBFT), allowing it to achieve high throughput
and low fees while maintaining scalability and security.
In Fantom’s aBFT consensus mechanism, nodes
can process transactions asynchronously without having a designated leader. The Lachesis Protocol has a fault tolerance of one-third, meaning 67% of nodes have to validate a transaction to settle it.
Its near-instant finality
of one second contrasts the block confirmation time of proof-of-work blockchains (12-14 seconds
for Ethereum) and allows Fantom to operate in a faster and more scalable way.
Lachesis acts as the settlement layer, which additional layers can be added on top of. The first – Opera
– is a proof-of-stake
(PoS) blockchain that is EVM-compatible and uses the Lachesis validator set for approving transactions.
Opera is also home to Fantom-native decentralized finance
(DeFi) applications, as well as those that have expanded from Ethereum
to Fantom such as SushiSwap
and Yearn Finance
Its FTM token
is used for staking, governance
, payments and fees, with a total supply of 3.175 billion FTM. Users can stake FTM for 4% APY or choose Fantom’s Fluid Rewards and lock up their FTM
for up to 12% APY
. Vesting also plays an important role in some of the Fantom DeFi protocols, as we will see later.
You can buy Fantom (FTM
) on any of the exchanges listed on their respective pages. Here is our step-by-step demonstration on how to buy FTM on Binance.
1. Open Binance and log in to your account.
Create an account if you do not yet have one and pass the KYC
verification to be able to buy and trade cryptocurrencies. Choose one of the circled options in the screenshot: buy crypto
if you don’t have any cryptocurrencies in your account yet or trade
if you want to swap another cryptocurrency for FTM.
2. Select FTM from the dropdown menu.
If you want to buy FTM with fiat currency, select one of the options from the dropdown menu. If you want to purchase with your credit card, select the option and proceed to the next menu, where you have to add your credit card information and pay.
3. Add a credit card and process the transaction.
If you want to swap another cryptocurrency for FTM, head to trade and select convert from the dropdown menu. You will see the following option, where you have to choose which coin you want to swap for FTM (in this case USDT).
You can buy FTM from different centralized exchanges
and decentralized exchanges
, 1inch Exchange
There are several wallet options for the Fantom blockchain.
Fantom Wallet (fWallet)
The Fantom Wallet (fWallet) is Fatom's official web-based wallet. You can send, receive, and stake FTM tokens and other tokens like wrapped FTM and staked FTM. It also supports ERC-20 and BEP-20 tokens.
Metamask is the most popular web-based wallet. It serves the Fantom blockchain and other popular blockchains like Ethereum and BNB Chain. With Metamask, you can also buy, store, send, and swap FTM.
The Coinbase Wallet is the non-custodial wallet of the Coinbase exchange. It has the same functionality as the other wallets and also supports other blockchains.
Despite the strong competition in the alternative layer-one blockchain
space, Fantom has established itself as a legitimate contender thanks to its strong focus on DeFi use cases
This is particularly due to Yearn Finance founder Andre Cronje
, who is also a technical advisor to the Fantom Foundation. Cronje has been instrumental in advising and expanding Fantom’s multi-chain development and has helped with launching its bridge to Ethereum.
At the beginning of 2022, Cronje announced that he and Daniele Sestagalli were working on a new product on Fantom. Cronje announced as much in a tweet on New Year’s Day:
Although details still have not been revealed as of February, the project is rumored to be a collaboration of the two prolific DeFi developers.
It could involve one or several of the protocols led by Sestagalli, such as Abracadabra Money
. Sestagalli is the self-proclaimed leader of “Frog Nation,” a crypto-native movement focused on preserving decentralization in DeFi. He announced the collaboration on his Twitter.
However, the project is up in the air after one of Sestagalli’s biggest projects, TIME, was exposed
to having a convicted fraudster as CFO. Although 0xsifu (aka Michael Patryn or Omar Dhanani) was voted out as the protocol’s CFO, Andre Cronje publicly vowed to continue building with Sestagalli, no news about their cooperation has been announced.
The project that Andre was working on was Solidly Exchange
, a protocol-to-protocol exchange running on an automated market maker
(AMM) model. The hype surrounding this prolific launch resulted in a race amongst Fantom DeFi protocols to accumulate TVL on Fantom — in a bid to obtain a share of future Solidly token. DAOs like veDAO
were formed just to accumulate funds. TVL grew from $3.95B at the start of 2022 to over $8B in about three months.
In a move that caught the space by surprise, shortly after the launch of Solidly, Cronje announced that he is leaving the industry
. Unsurprisingly, SOLID
crashed, prompting calls of rug pull
by crypto users speculating on the token and participating protocols.
The TVL on Fantom
exploded in the winter of 2021 when DeFi applications on Fantom grew in popularity. It multiplied from under $2B to over $5B and peaked in January 2022 at $8.19B, according to DeFi Llama
, an analytics site. The total value locked on Fantom now sits at $783M
after the Solidly hype died and the overall crypto market entered a bear phase.
According to DeFi Llama, there are 6 Fantom-native DApps among the top 10 by TVL and 4 cross-chain DApps. The top 10 DApps by TVL on Fantom at the time of writing are:
- Curve Finance (CRV): $219.57M
- SpookySwap (BOO): $127.4M
- Beefy Finance (BIFI): $67.07M
- Beethoven X (BEETS): $62.52M
- Geist Finance (GEIST): $55.07M
- Yearn Finance (YFI): $38.23M
- SpiritSwap (SPIRIT): $36.33M
- Hector Finance (HEC): $29.95M
- Liquid Driver (LQDR): $29.47M
- Frax (FXS): $28.96M
Fantom has a well-developed ecosystem with dApps mostly focusing on DeFi
applications. Most of the total value locked on Fantom comes from DeFi projects. Here are some of the top DeFi projects on Fantom
- Beethoven X
- Geist Finance
- Tarot Finance
is an automated market-making DEX
based on the BOO token
. It is a partner of Popsicle Finance, the money market founded by Daniele Sestagalli. Spookyswap provides the classic functions of a decentralized exchange like token swaps, yield farming
, single-staking pools, but also NFT
s and a bridge
are charged at 0.2% per swap. 0.17% go to liquidity providers
and 0.03% to BOO stakers. Users can stake their BOO in single-staking pools to earn more BOO and receive xBOO, which can, in turn, be staked to earn other tokens like wFTM.
Spookyswap also offers a bridge to and from several other blockchains like Ethereum, BSC
, Arbitrum, Harmony
, Cronos, and UEC. Finally, the exchange released two sets of NFTs – Magicats and official Spookyswap NFTs – that contribute to the Spooky economy by earning royalties that go into buying back BOO.
The second most popular DEX on Fantom behind SpookySwap, SpiritSwap
is based on the Uniswap constant-product AMM model and utilizes its native token SPIRIT for rewarding liquidity providers on the platform. The platform allows users to swap, provide liquidity, yield farm for rewards, lock SPIRIT to acquire inSPIRIT which can be used for governance and boosted farming rewards.
inSPIRIT can also be wrapped to winSPIRIT (locked forever) to boost farm APYs by 2.5X on Grim Finance and Liquid Driver. The total supply of SPIRIT is 1,000,000,000, of which the distribution is as follows: Farm: 81.82%; DAO: 8.18%; Development: 7.50%; Airdrop: 2.5%.
aims to be a “one-stop decentralized investment platform
” on Fantom. It is built on Balancer V2
and calls itself the “first next-generation AMM protocol on Fantom.” Beethoven offers different money market products like weighted investment pools, stable pools, and token swaps.
With weighted investment pools, users can collect fees from traders rebalancing their portfolios by following arbitrage opportunities. A pool can consist of up to eight different tokens, with each token assigned a different weight based on its weight in the pool. Assets like stablecoins or synthetics with relatively little volatility are traded in the Curve-like StableSwap AMM.
Moreover, Beethoven allows token launches through its Liquidity Bootstrapping Pools
(LBP). An LBP Launch is similar to a crowdfunding mechanism. It allows for transparent price discovery, fair distribution of new tokens to the community, and the ability to bootstrap liquidity for new projects. Since Beethoven is permissionless, anybody can create an auction and do an LBP
is a zero-interest crypto lending protocol
that offers stablecoin loans at 0% interest rates.
is a decentralized non-custodial liquidity market protocol
, where depositors can provide liquidity to earn a passive income, and borrowers can receive flash loans
or regular overcollateralized loans. It is based on the Aave money market and rivals other AMM liquidity protocols on Fantom.
Geist operates without governance or ownership, meaning that it does not have a protocol treasury. 50% of protocol revenue is redistributed to GEIST
Liquidity miners on Geist receive rewards with a three-month vesting period, which can be dodged by paying a 50% penalty on claimed rewards. Penalty fees are subsequently redistributed to stakers. Users who vest their GEIST also receive protocol fees from token swaps.
A unique feature of Geist is its generous airdrop allocation
(20%). Airdropped GEIST is vested linearly over one year and can be unvested in the same way as staked tokens (applying the penalty). Airdrops have so far been provided to the Aave, Ellipsis
and LobsterDAO communities.
is another decentralized lending protocol
, where lenders and borrowers interact in isolated lending pools (see a pattern here?).
It is essentially a clone of several of the previously mentioned protocols, as Tarot provides the same non-custodial, permissionless lending and borrowing. In addition, users on Tarot can also engage in leveraged yield farming.
Tarot rewards liquidity providers through its Tarot Vaults
. Users can automatically earn rewards by providing their LP tokens
in lending pools that support Tarot Vaults.
The provided liquidity is automatically staked in the vaults and generates additional rewards. Upon withdrawing the LP tokens, the liquidity is also withdrawn from the vaults. A permissionless bounty system enables reinvestment and can be initiated by anyone for the pending reward of a pool. In return, they keep a small percentage of the reward as a reinvestment bounty (1%).
Spartacus DAO is a decentralized reserve currency and the most popular OHM fork
on Fantom. Users can bond stablecoins like DAI
to mint SPA tokens and then stake these SPA tokens for additional yield. Spartacus DAO was highly popular during the boom of Olympus (OHM)
NFTs are just as popular on Fantom as they are on other blockchains. However, Fantom NFTs are not traded on popular Ethereum NFT marketplaces like OpenSea but on native solutions.
Paintswap is the top NFT marketplace on Fantom. It was first a DeFi platform that aimed to become the premier decentralized automated market maker on Fantom but has since rebranded into an NFT marketplace.
PaintSwap has 2.5% service fees and offers minting tools and basic listing options for NFT creators. It also has a native token for staking called BRUSH
, which is used for marketplace listing fees, NFT minting fees and collection fees.
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